May 28, 2009

Legendary kirant tribe in ancient India

Chandra Prakash Sunuwar
Kirant legendary aboriginal inhabitants of The Himalayas. Early references to the GOLDEN SKINNED kirant in Sanskrit literature portray them as fearsome skin-clad cannibalistic hunter, skilled in magical arts. In later Hindu Epics they are described as having their own kings who allied themselves with Hindu rulers but despised bramhans.In a well known Episode from the Mahavarata the god Shiva assumes the guise of kirata to do battle with the hero arjuna.The kirant have been associated with the kiranti of nepal like SUNUWAR, RAI, LIMBU AND YAKKHA.KASTEN RONNOW in his long article “kirata” A study on some ancient Indian tribes published in 1936 has provided a detailed accounts of the kiratas.The subject is further highlighted in Encyclopaedia prepared by R.N SALETORE, ROBERT has touched on the subject without giving any details. SUDHAKAR CHATTOPADHYAH had tried to do justice with the subject concerned through his Important work. R.P. CHANDRA a celebrated Indian anthropologist and a highly accomplished scholar of indology has also made a historical study of a few ancient Indian tribes by taking a numismatic approach to the problem concerned. All of them mentioned about kirant which Is the most ancient tribe in Indian continent. The more important inscriptions about the ethnic communities of the region are the PANDUKESHVAR copper plate inscription or the CHARTERS AND GRANTS OF LALITASURA middle of the 9th centaury A.D and the grants of PADMA middle of the 10th centaury A.D. Both of kumaon garwal region. These have been addressed to the kiratas,The khasas,the Dravidas and otheres. One of the PANDUKESHVAR inscriptions provided a glimpse of the kingdom of RAJYA KIRATAS {kumaon and karttikeyapur}. Sikh guru Nanak himself was born in KIRANTPUR ancient kirant kingdom in panjab. Classical GREEK AND ROMAN writer were also mentioned about kirata. The first Greek historian and geographer to speak clearly of the races of north western India was HECATEUS of miletus {B.C 549 - 486}. In his geographical work the period gees he mentions KALATIAI OR KALLATIAI along with other tribal people who were living on the frontier Hills. The KALATIAI can etymologically be identified with kiratas living on the Upper Indus. People says Indus civilization is Aryan civilization but in historic, anthropologist and archaeologist way this civilization was completely belongs to kirata because this civilization was before 5000 B.C but Aryan start to migrate in Indian continent only after 1500 B.C from Iran. What they only found in Indus valley where the civilization was various forms of Statue of GOD SHIVA kiranti god.Very import few CHINESE TEXT are also worthy of mention. The most ancient text PO-OU-YEO-JING. Translated in 308 AD. Refers to an appellation VI-TI-SAI, which from the Chinese point of view is an exact equivalent to the kiratas who were the very popular and doughty warrior in the Chinese text. They were mentioned as quite similar with Chinese race. Golden yellowy colour. From Chinese and Japanese point of view ancient Hindu religion itself was the religion of kiratas because many god and goddess were used to worship by local tribes before Aryan start to migrate in Indian continent. Hindu religion only seems borrowed by Aryans and later claimed their religion adding some other system and god,goddess. Like ancient Hindu god and goddest{AGNI, BAYU, BIRYE, BARUN}were already existed before Aryan comes. All the Chinese, French, Arabian, Japanese, venetian travellers some how they managed to mentioned about kiratas. FA-HIAN{399-414 AD} Who visited India during Gupta period has made a passing reference of a kirat. HIUEN-TSANG{629-645 AD} Who visited India during the time of HARSA, has left behind an elaborate account of India. He was also mentioned about kiratas saying beautiful people.kiratas were disappeared in many different way which I mentioned in my another article we kirant mongol race. Like that The last alphabet of the word kirata{ta} disappeared and kirata, became “kira” in kanga. A village has been called KIR and the king as the “KIRA-RAJA” They were called kinnar as well that means “LIKE WOMEN WHO HAS NO BEARED AND MUSTACHES” In Sanskrit. In India these kirata people were unfortunately treated as foreigners but in our study shows that they have been aboriginals of India and we do not find any reflection of their foreign origin ancient Indian Literary texts. They were also known as DASYUS ,they were of KSHATRIYA origin but due to laxity in moral conduct they were degraded and thus termed as DASAS OR DASYUS by Aryans. One of the powerful dasyu king was SHAMBARA. Whom the RIGVEDA mentions as the greatest enemy of the Aryans. After Fighting for about forty years. The Aryans defeated shambara.The rajya kirata were actually ancient kirata tribes of kumaon region who were the descendant of shambara.these kiratas were always resist against the invader and looter Aryans. So as being noble enemy of Aryan they were appreciated and hated in mixture way of Aryan text book.
Sources of article.
-The abode of amative
-Garwal the land and people
-study on kumaon Himalaya
-man and forest-myths, rituals and believes in himanchal prades
-recent research on the Himalayas

जातीय राष्ट्रवाद र लिम्बुवान

खगेन्द्र माखिम
देशमा अहिले संघीयताको बहस चलिरहेको छ । यसैक्रममा राज्यको पुनर्संरचना कसरी हुने त भन्ने विषयमा अझै गहिराइबाट बहस उठेको छ । संविधान सभाबाट घोषणा हुने नयाँ संविधानमा राज्यको पुनर्संरचनाको स्पष्ट खाका पनि आउने छ । र, अहिलेको मुख्य बहसको विषय जातीय आधारमा प्रस्तावित राज्यहरूको बारेमा केन्द्रीत् हुँदै गइरहेको छ । देश संघीयतामा जाने प्रष्ट भइसकेपछि स्वायत्त राज्यहरूको बहस तीब्ररुपमा उठ्न थाल्यो । अर्कोतिर, राष्ट्रवाद र राष्ट्रिय विखण्डनका कुराहरू पनि त्यतिकै उचाइमा चुलिएर आएका छन् । यस्तो अबस्थामा के साँच्चै नेपाली राष्ट्रियता विखण्डित अबस्थामै पुग्नसक्छ ? वा, राष्ट्रियताले नयाँ परिभाषा खोजेको हो ? यो पाटोबाट बहस हुन जरुरी देखिन्छ । संविधान सभाको निर्वाचनअघि निर्वाचानको प्रक्रिया समानुपातिक आधारमा भएमा यो निर्वाचन प्रक्रियाले राष्ट्र विखण्डन हुन्छ भनेर ठूला दलका नेताहरूले नै बोलेका थिए । राजतन्त्रलाई समाप्त गरी गणतन्त्र घोषणा गरिएमा देश विखण्डन र राष्ट्रियता खतरामा पर्ने कुरा राजावादीहरूले उठाएका थिए । राजा नै राष्ट्रिय एकताको आधार मान्ने र आधार नै नष्ट भएपछि राष्ट्रियता नरहने भन्ने उनीहरूको तर्क रहेको थियो । आदिवासी जनजातिहरूले जातीय ऐतिहासिक पृष्ठभूमिको आधारमा आत्मनिर्णयको अधिकारसहित स्वायत्त राज्यको माग राखी आन्दोलन गरिरहेको र सो माग पूरा गरिएमा राष्ट्र नै विखण्डन हुने चेतावनी पनि आइरहेको छ । आदिवासी जनजातिलाई उनीहरूको ऐतिहासिक थात् थलोको आधारमा स्वायत्त राज्यहरूको सुनिश्चित गर्दा नेपालको राष्ट्रियता समाप्त हुन्छ त ? यसकारण, नेपालको राष्ट्रियताको बारेमा व्यापक बहस हुनु जरुरी छ ।
राष्ट्रवादको अर्थः
राष्ट्रवादलाई विभिन्न दृष्टिकोणबाट परिभाषित गरिएको छ । शब्दको ब्युत्पतिको दृष्टिले हेर्दा 'राष्ट्र' अंग्रेजी (Nation) पर्यायवाची शब्द हो । नेशन शब्द ल्याटिन भाषाको 'नेशियो'(Natio) शब्दबाट आएको र यसको अर्थ 'जन्म' वा 'जाति' हुन्छ । यसबाट प्रष्ट हुन्छ जन्म तथा जातिको बन्धनबाट बाँधिएको जनसमुदायको साझार् इच्छा नै राष्ट्रवाद हो । हासकोहुको अनुसार 'मातृभूमिलाई केन्द्रीत गरी बनेको भावनात्मक स्थिति नै राष्ट्रवाद हो ।' बर्गेस प्रेडियरका अनुसार 'जाति, समुदाय, भाषा, आदत, प्रथा तथा धर्मको एकताजस्ता तत्वद्वारा राष्ट्र निर्माण हुन्छ ।' यी विद्वानहरूले 'जाति' र 'नश्ल'लाई नै राष्ट्रको मुख्य आधार मानेका छन् ।
नेपाली राष्ट्रियताका आधारः
नेपाली इतिहासको वास्तविकतालाई हेर्दा नेपालको राष्ट्रियता विविध जाति, धर्म, सम्प्रदाय तथा शासनव्यवस्था आदिको पृष्ठभूमिमा आधारित देखिन्छ । त्यसैले, नेपालको राष्ट्रियताको वास्तविक स्थितिलाई बुझ्न यसको ऐतिहासिक पृष्ठभूमि बुझ्नु जरुरी छ । नेपालका आदिवासी जनजातिहरू नेपालको ऐतिहासिक पृष्ठभूमिको प्रत्यक्षदर्शीहरू हुन् । नेपालको वास्तविक इतिहास बुझ्नको लागि नेपालका आदिवासी जनजातिको यथार्थ इतिहासको जरुरत पर्दछ । तर, अर्ढाईसय वर्षघिदेखि लगातार रुपले एकात्मक राज्यसत्ताले उनीहरूको इतिहासलाई समाप्त पार्न तिनीहरूको दस्तावेजहरूलाई जलाइदिएका छन् र कतै बाँकी रहेका ऐतिहासिक प्रमाणहरूलाई पनि नष्ट गरिदिएका छन् । त्यसकारण, अहिले नेपालको यथार्थ इतिहासको अभावमा राष्ट्रियताको पूर्ण ब्याख्या हुनसकेको छैन । र, जबर्जस्त विविधताभित्रको एकता नै नेपालको राष्ट्रियता र राष्ट्रिय पहिचान हो भनी सुघाझैं रटाउने कार्य हुँदैआइरहेको छ । जसको कारण एक जाति, एक भाषा, एक धर्म र एक संस्कृतिको उदय भयो । त्योसँगै राजालाई राष्ट्रियताको केन्द्रबिन्दुमा राख्ने र राष्ट्रिय एकताको आधार मान्ने कार्य भयो । त्यसपछि, शाहबंशीय दासत्वलाई राष्ट्रियताको रुपमा हेर्ने कार्यको थालनी भयो । २०६२/२०६३ को जनआन्दोलपछि राजावादी राष्ट्रियताको अन्त्य भएको छ । र, राष्ट्रिय मुक्ति आन्दोलनका कारण तल्लो तहमा रहेका जनतामा पुनर्जागरण आयो र अहिले नेपालको राष्ट्रियतामा विविधता प्रकट हुन गएको छ । लिम्बुवान, खम्बुवान, तामाङसालीङ, थरुहट, नेवाः मण्डल, मगरात, तमुवान आदिमा जातीय स्वायत्तताको लागि भएको ऐतिहासिक आन्दोलनहरू र केही उपलब्धीहरूपछि अब नेपालमा जातीय राष्ट्रवाद बलियो आधारको रुपमा स्थापित भएको छ । यो आन्दोलनसँगै एक भाषा, एक जाति, एक धर्म र संस्कृतिको राष्ट्रवादको अन्त्यपछि अब बहुसाँस्कृतिक राष्ट्रवादको रुपमा परिणत हुने निश्चित भएको छ । अर्ढाईसय वर्षछिको लिम्बुवानको आन्दोलनले लिएको उचाइका कारण अब बलियो लिम्बुवानी राष्ट्रियताको रुपमा उभिएको छ । त्यस्तै, थरुहटलगायत अन्यमा पनि अब नयाँ पहिचानसहितको राष्ट्रियताको विकास हुँदै आएको छ । जातीय राष्ट्रवादलाई सतहीरुपमा बुझ्नेहरू देशको रक्षाको लागि देशका सिमानाहरूमा सेना तैनाथ राख्छन् र देशका जनतामाथि शोषण र दमन गर्छन् । अनि, राष्ट्रवादको कुरा गर्छन् । तर, साँचो अर्थको राष्ट्रवाद भनेको देशका तमाम जातिहरूलाई सशक्त बनाउनु हो । देशका तमाम जातिहरूको विकास हुनु भनेको सम्पूर्ण जनता बलियो हुनु हो । सम्पूर्ण जनता विकसित हुनु भनेको देश बलियो हुनु हो । देश बलियो हुनु भनेको राष्ट्रियता बलियो हुनु हो । तर, यो देशमा लामो समयसम्म केही जातिको मुट्ठीमा नेपाली राष्ट्रियता कैद रहेको थियो । र, अझै रहिरहेको छ । यसको अन्त्य हुनु जरुरी छ । लिम्बुवानको आन्दोलन कुनै एक जाति विशेषको मात्र आन्दोलन होइन । यो स्वायत्तताको लागि गरिएको विशुद्ध राजनीतिक आन्दोलन हो । यो आन्दोलन जातीय सङ्कीर्णता, जातीय हिङ्सा र जातीय द्वन्द्वमा आधारित नभई राजनीतिक मुद्दा र शैलीमा अगाडि बढिरहेको आन्दोलन भएकोले यसलाई राष्ट्रिय मुक्ति आन्दोलन भनिरहेका छौं । परम्परागत मानसिकताले ग्रस्त भएकाहरू यसप्रकारको आन्दोलनले राष्ट्रियता विखण्डन हुने, साम्प्रदायिक सद्भाव खलल हुने विचार राख्छन् र त्यही भ्रम फैलाइरहेका छन् ।यथार्थमा, राष्ट्रवाद भनेको देशभित्रकै विभिन्न जाति, धर्म, सम्प्रदाय, लिङ्ग, अल्पसङ्ख्क्, उत्पीडित, उपेक्षित सम्प्रदाय, संस्कृति, परम्परा, भाषा आदिबीचमा समन्वय गरी साझा राष्ट्रियताको निर्माण गरी नेपाललाई राष्ट्र बनाउनु नै हो । तर के गर्ने, नेपाल राज्य भएपनि अझैसम्म राष्ट्र बन्न सकेको छैन । राष्ट्र भनेको अझै पनि मुट्ठीभर शासक र सम्भ्रान्तहरूको राष्ट्रको रुपमा रहेको छ । यसलाई समाप्त पार्नु भनेको संघीय ब्यवस्थाअर्न्तर्गत स्वायत्त राज्यहरूको स्थापना गर्नु हो । नेपाली राष्ट्रियताको स्थायित्व र संरक्षण भनेको संघीय ब्यवस्थाभित्रको स्वायत्त राज्यको स्थापनामा भर्रपर्दछ । अहिले नेपाली राष्ट्रियताको खतराको कुरा उठ्छ, विखण्डनको भ्रम फैलाइन्छ । विभिन्न जातिहरूबाट उठेका मुद्दा र सशक्त आन्दोलनकै कारण राष्ट्रियताको विखण्डन र खतराको कुरा उठिरहेको छ । यदि ती मुद्दाहरू सम्बोधन गरिएमा पुरानो राज्य संरचना ध्वस्त हुन्छ । र, करिब करिब नेपाली राष्ट्रियताको आधारको रुपमा रहेको सामन्तवादसमेतको अन्त्य हुनेछ । र, नयाँ राष्ट्रवादले जन्म लिनेछ । नयाँ राष्ट्रवादमा सम्पूर्ण जनताको सामुहिक इच्छा र भावना प्रतिविम्बित हुनेछ । नयाँ राष्ट्रवादको जन्म हुने सम्भावनाकै कारणले नेपालको राष्ट्रियता खण्डित हुने, विभाजित हुने वा राष्ट्रियता सङ्कटमा पर्ने आदि कुराहरू उठिरहेको हुन् । यो सामन्तवादी र यथास्थितिवादी मानसिकताको उपज हो ।
जातीय राष्ट्रवादः
केही वर्षता नेपालमा विभिन्न जाति, क्षेत्र आदिबाट आ-आफ्नै किसिमले आफ्नो पहिचानलाई लिएर आन्दोलन भइरहेको छ । आन्दोलनको मुख्य मुद्दा जातीय ऐतिहासिक पृष्ठभूमिको आधारमा स्वायत्त राज्य पाउनुपर्ने रहेको छ । यी कुरालाई लिएर नेपाली राष्ट्रवाद खतरामा परेको, विखण्डन हुने आदि कुराहरू उठेका छन् । यस सवाललाई लिएर राष्ट्रियता र जातीय राष्ट्रवादको सम्बन्धमा भ्रमहरू सिर्जना र उत्पन्न गर्ने प्रयास भइरहेको छन् । वास्तवमा, नेपाली राष्ट्रवाद र जातीय राष्ट्रवादमा खासै अन्तर छैन । किनकि, नेपाल भनेकै विविध जातिहरूको मिश्रति थलो हो । उनीहरूको सम्मान र सम्बोधनमा नै नेपालको राष्ट्रियता निर्भर रहेको छ । त्यसकारण, नेपाली राष्ट्रवाद भनेको जाति, जनजातिहरूको पहिचान र राष्ट्रवादको समग्र रुप हो । नेपाली राष्ट्रवादको महत्वपूर्ण अङ्गको रुपमा जातीय राष्ट्रवाद रहेको छ । यसलाई सकारात्मक र ठीक ढङ्गबाट बुझ्ने कोसिस नगर्दा जाति र सम्प्रदायबाट उठेका नारा र आन्दोलनहरूलाई नेपाली राष्ट्रवादको विरुद्धमा रहेको हो कि भन्ने भान हुन्छ । तर, यो वास्तविकता होइन । सबैभन्दा पहिला जे कुराको दिमागमा तस्वीर बन्छ, त्यो नै राष्ट्रियताको पहिचान हो । मानिसको पहिलो राष्ट्रिय भावना भनेको आमासँग जोडिएको हुन्छ । त्यसपछि, परिवार, गाउँ, क्षेत्र, जाति र मुलुकसँग जोडिन्छ । यी कुराहरूलाई अलग रुपमा हेरिनु हुँदैन । यसमा एक-अर्काको सम्बन्ध हुन्छ । जसरी आमाले आफ्नो परिवारलाई संरक्षण र स्याहार सुसार गर्छन् त्यसैगरी राष्ट्रले आफ्नो मुलुकको निवासीहरूलाई संरक्षण दिन्छ र अधिकार प्रदान गर्दछ । राष्ट्रियताको अभावमा मानिस टुहुरो बन्दछ । राष्ट्रविहीन व्यक्तिको संरक्षण हुनसक्दैन । राष्ट्रले नै व्यक्तिलाई संरक्षण दिने भएकोले उसको राष्ट्रसँग प्रत्यक्ष अधिकार र कर्तव्य, संरक्षण्को भाव र आत्मीयताको भावना जोडिएको हुन्छ, यो नै राष्ट्रवाद हो । नेपालभित्र बसेका सबै जाति वा सम्प्रदायको संरक्षक भनेको नेपाल राष्ट्र हो । नेपालभित्रै रहेर विभिन्न जातिले आफ्नो अधिकार, पहिचान वा स्वायत्त राज्य माग्नुलाई अन्यथा मान्नु हुँदैन । नेपालको पूर्वको नौ जिल्लालाई लिम्बुवान स्वायत्त राज्य बनाउनु पर्दछ भनी आन्दोलन चलिरहेको छ । तराइलाई थरुहट त्यस्तै खम्बुवान, तामाङसालीङ, नेवाः मण्डल, तमुवान, मगरात आदिले आफ्नो पहिचान र अधिकार माग गर्नु भनेको समग्र राष्ट्रियतालाई सुदृढ र संगठित बनाउनु हो । यी आन्दोलनहरुले माग गरेको कुरा अलग राष्ट्रियताको खोजी होइन । बरु, यसले करिब अर्ढाईसय वर्षअघिदेखि ओझेलमा राखिएको राष्ट्रियतालाई ब्युँताउने छ र बलियो राष्ट्रियताको प्रारम्भ गर्ने छ । जातीय पहिचान भनेको नै जातीय राष्ट्रवाद हो । र, समग्र जातीय राष्ट्रवाद नै नेपाली राष्ट्रवाद हो । यसबाट स्पष्ट के हुन्छ भने नेपाली राष्ट्रवादको महत्वपूर्ण अङ्ग नै जातीय राष्ट्रवाद रहेछ । यसरी राष्ट्रवादको महत्वपूर्ण अङ्ग जातीय पहिचानको कुरा नै ओझेलमा राखेर गरिएको राष्ट्रवादको ब्याख्या पूर्ण राष्ट्रवाद थिएन । त्यो देखावटी नक्कली राष्ट्रवाद थियो । त्यसकारण, नेपाली राष्ट्रियता र राष्ट्रवादलाई बलियो सशक्त बनाउन जातीय राष्ट्रवाद स्थापित हुन जरुरी छ । जातीय राष्ट्रवादको आन्दोलन नै लिम्बुवान, खम्बुवान, तामाङसालीङ, नेवाः मण्डल, तमुवान, मगरात आदि आन्दोलनहरू हुन् । यी आन्दोलहरूको सफलतामा नेपाली राष्ट्रवादको भविष्य निर्भर हुनेछ ।
साभार: याक्थुङ आवाज पत्रिका,
२००९ लिम्बू विद्यार्थी मञ्च, धनकुटा

May 20, 2009

We Kirant Mongol Race

Chandra Prakash Sunuwar
Kiranti people are very ancient tribe in history .actually nobody khows when they came in nepal because these people are mentioned in ancient religion book of hindu like BED,PURAN,MAHABHART,SWASTHANI BRATA KATHA,HIMAVAT KHANDA ETC.These people are also mentioned in ancient Greek history, Chinese history and holy book of Sikh guru nanak.In Mahabharata once lord siba was went to nepal disguising himself as kiranti hunter and lord siba was again having incarnation of kiranti hunter and hunting around pasupatinath in SLESHMANTAK BAN.This can approved that kiranti people were already in nepal since ancient time actually no body’s knows the fact. According to Mahabharata when vimsen defeated the seven kirant king in northern India that time to make him happy beautiful kirant ladys were bringing him mountain medicine,gold,silver and other precious is also mentioned that beautiful kiranti kanya was digging the medicine in mountain with golden khurpi{a kind of tool.}Kiranti NEW YEAR it’s been already THE YEAR 5063 which is considered The kiranti king yalamber stablish that new year which is called YELE SAMBAT. In wallo kirant of kiranti people used to celebrate this new year in the time of MAGHE SIRI PANCHAMI OR SUKLA PANCHAMI because these days are always considered lucky day for kiranti people.It is believe that yalamber was formed the kingdom in that day. This can prove that kiranti were exist before 5000 years ago.When they defeated by Litchchivi Again they formed 3 kirant kingdom in east.It is myth and believe that wallo kirant king BINICHA establish his kingdom in this precious day maghe sukla panchami.Once upon time they were not only in nepal but they used to ruled and lived from all the Himalayan range from Pakistan,Afghanistan all the Northern India like Himanchal Pradesh ,Nagaland ,Silang,Sikkim,Darjeeling to Compochia and Vietnam.Nowadays these kiranti are disappear and disguised themselves as local people for proof still you can find kulung people in TAIWAN AND CHINA They are tribe from our kulung Rai,Sunuwar are called KOICH OR KOICHI still you can find KOICH Tribe in JAPAN{LIKE KOICHI TANAKA,KOICHI SUGIYAMA,KOICHI NAKATA,KOICHI TOGO,KOICHI MURAYAMA ETC}.In sunuwar language koich for male and koichim for woman exactly Japanese tribe said koich for male and koichim for women. They are very famous tribe or surname they are considered migrated from china before 5000 YEARS ago. so on ancient kiranti were NAGA from Assam and Burma.KHAMER from Cambodia{Who believe their ancestor were kiranti and came from Assam.Khamerouge or khamer guerrillas are world famous and well known people.khamer empire was so large who used to rule all Indochina,Thailand,Vietnam,laos,malayasia part of china. According to professor GERRY NORMAN AND TSU-LIU MEI Mon Khmer kiranti people meet Chinese in Yangtze region between 1000 BC and 500 BC. Yangtze king valley was non Chinese specially Khmer kirant used to live}KHASI from silang,LEPCHA from sikkim,DRUKPA from Bhutan, HAZARA tribe from Afghanistan and Pakistan as well{Who used to build giant tallest stone BUDDHA in Afghanistan but this was destroyed by Taliban hitting by missile during the Taliban regime}.Even kiranti language on the basis of verbal agreement morphology the kiranti family has been compared to the QIANGIC and NUNGISH groups spoken Respectively in Sichuan china and the china - Burma Boarder area which is written by {THURGOOD 1984}It can prove that ancient kiranti were completely disguised and vanished themselves in local people of that country. According to Sunuwar kirant bansawali Assamis and Tripura people were same race with kiranti.The Tripura people are considered part of Tibeto-Burmese ethnic group.Origionally they migrated from near the Upper courses of YANGTZE KIANG and HWANG HO river in western china. long before the SUI DYNESTY came to power. At the time of migration they were ANIMIST. So it may be reasonably assumed that they migrated before 65 AD, The year Buddhism was introduced in china. The Common reference to these people as KIRANTS AND CINAS in the early SANSKRIT TEXTS OF India unmistakably indicates that they came down to the Assam valley long before the dawn of Christian era. Tripura were able to expand their influence as far as CHITTAGONG, as far west as COMILLA and NOAKHALI.Not only Nepal but Tripura as well known as KIRANT DESHE{LAND OF KIRANT} In ancient time and assumed migrated during hunting age according to anthropology. MANIPUR AND HASTINAPUR city was so famous and centre of civilization in ancient India. There is too many myth and legendary folk tales about ancient Manipuri kiranti king and civilization. These people were BALI PUJAK.the way of worship{Bali puja bidhi}of kamacha Devi’s temple in Assam is considered kiranti bidhi{way}. KOTI HOM was kiranti dharma{Bali puja}Still the wallo kiranti sunuwar celebrate this koti home puja.It’s called GIL PUJA which you have to sacrifice 360 animal of earth and all sort of grain of earth, you have to prepare hundred of thousand of MURIS wine. Hundred of jhakri,bijuwa and many different kind of NASO{Mundhum pujari} continues praying. In ancient time it used to long last more then 6 month. This gil puja is very expensive you can’t do by yourself has to be done by community so this koti hom or gil puja start to disappear Which one is greatest kiranti religion According to sunuwar kirant bansawali when the kirant come down from the Mongolia to the Indian continent and start to migrate to westward of Himalayan range from Assam to nepal who left in northern India these kirants are called Naga,gora,bora,chapera,villa,khasia. Still these people are pure mongoloied people. The rest one branch of kiranti who entered the nepal and start to ruled.Decendant of these kirantis later became sunuwar ,rai,limbu and yakha.When kirantis were defeated from Kathmandu valley again they regrouped and establish 3 kirant kingdom in east like WALLO KIRANT,MAJH KIRANT AND PALLO KIRANT.This new kirant kingdom was start from SANGA BHANJYANG HILL in Kathmandu{from west} to SIKKIM IN{east}.They marked the Boarder with erecting THARO{ancient way of marking the boarder}.SUNUWAR are called wallo kirant,Rai are called majh kirant,and limbus are called pallo kirant.That time First king of wallo kirant was king Binicha whose kingdom was Bhuji kot gaun in Ramechchap district. Then after other kings And queens were MAFAI RANI MAFAI RAJA,GOLMA RANI GOLMA RAJA,CHUPHAI RANI CHUPHAI RAJA,KALO RANI KALO RAJA,HUNPIN RANI HUPIN RAJA,THAKU RANI THAKU RAJA,GOSAI RANI GOSAI RAJA,NAISA RANI NAISA RAJA etc but these things only left in secret mantra of {Dhami,Jhakri,Bijuwa,Nasho,Baidang and Mundum}Pureley which was recorded in Bhag pahilo kiranti bansawali it is myth that it was written with the blood and gold so you can see blood golden colour. Which was purely written in KAIKE{ancient kiranti script, Nowadays wallo kiranti people trying to copy that kaike lipi by the help of old peoples which is already released long time ago. If you interested then you can find in sunuwar welfare society}. All of these proof and precious book were destroyed by rana government. That time they were specially open office for to destroy all of these recorded historical book,bansawali,lal mohar,tamra patra,silapatra ,bhoj patra of kiranti people. Office was used to called Jatiya nasta bivag(Gopal guung}.kirantichap darwar of dolakha district which was built by wallo kiranti king, same thing kiranti dhara and chautara of mirge village of dolakha district was build by wallo kiranti king still this Dhara is called Banja Dhara by local Tamang people that means sunuwar kiranti dhara in Tamang language. Still there is many kiranti grave in Jiri,Sindhupalchok and Kavre palanchok,Chyane,Trisule in Thulopatal{Village Development Committee} of dolakha district. Ancient kirant were fierce fighter, deft archers hunters and trappers so still kiranti sunuwar are called DUWAL BANDHI SIKARI.In ancient time sunuwar people they used to take A DALO{Basket} of humming bird{Phista chara},Leg of WILD BOAR,DEER{Specially jharl and ghoral}and wines in marriage proposal because he has to show the hunting skill. As being hunter. By gone days when other tribes apart from kirant if they go in jungle or top of the hill they used to say {Rachcha gara sikari kirant}.Still in village people scared to become sick in time of morning, evening and place like top of the hill, jungle because they have belief kiranti archer shoot the arrow on them if they show disrespect in such place. Still in chandi festival they kill the buffalo and pigs by shooting arrow keeping their hunting tradition. When they get angry they crossed the border it’s extreme so they are given symbol name of CHITUWA AND KIRUWA.When the gurkha kingdom seized the land of kirant with the help of conspiracy kirantis were given many many positions and greed’s like MUKHIYA,SUBBA,RAI,DEWAN,GIMI,GIMWAL,THALU,PANCHAYEN,GAURUN and TAMRAPATRA,LAL MOHOR Which they have done guarantee that kiranti lands always belongs to kiranti.Which can never seized by others .like in Limbus tamra patra it is written and sign by prithivinarayan shah. In that tamra patra it says{UDHO JAGAR,UBHO BAGAR KHOLAKO TITE MANCHA SAMMA TOLAI,AKAS KO CHANDRA SURYE PATALKO BASUKI YEDI MERA SANTAN LE TERHA PUSTA BHITRA TERA RAJYA PHIRTA NADIYE NEPAL KHALBALINE CHA}.Same thing sunuwar has Lal mohar. During the Rana period very known and legendary THALU WAS PARAT JIJICHA SUNUWAR.Who got the royal seal from rana government at that time appointing THALU {position} of all eastern kiranti region. He can go as far as he like to decide the reeds{mudda}He was the ultimate power above the law in that area. He used to born in Ward no 3 surke village development committee in Rasnalu.He used to be very wealthy man. He had 500 cattle’s uncountable Goats,Sheeps and land which you cannot view bye your naked eye need to walk whole day to cover it. His descendant are still alive if we try to find more about him then certainly we can get more knowledge about him. The Kiratas (Sanskrit) mentioned in early Hindu texts are the tribals or Adivasi (aborigines) of the land. They are mentioned along with Cinas (Chinese). The Kirata (Sanskrit) is a generic term in Sanskrit literature for people who lived in the mountains, particularly in the Himalayas and North-East India and who were Mongoloid in origin. They are mentioned along with Cinas (Chinese), and were different from the Nishadas.[1] They are first mentioned in the Yajurveda (Shukla XXX.16; Krisha III.4,12,1), and in the Atharvaveda (X.4,14) . Yajur Veda describing the "handsome" mountain people and hunters in the forests and deadly warriors. In Manu's Dharmashastra (X.44) they are mentioned as degraded Kshatriyas, which meant that they were considered to be of advanced civilization, but outside the ambit of Brahminical influence. It is speculated that the term is a Sanskritization of a Sino-Tibetan tribal name, like that of Kirant or Kiranti of eastern Nepal. Kirati languages belong to Tibeto-Burman family of Languages . Kiratas have been identified as the present day Rai, Limbu and Sunuwar of Nepal. Ghatotkacha of Mahabharata fame (Son of Bhima) was a Kirata Chieftain.In Yoga Vasistha 1.15.5 Rama speaks of kirAteneva vAgurA, "a trap [laid] by Kiratas", so about BCE Xth Century, they were thought of as jungle trappers, the ones who dug pits to capture roving deer. The same text also speaks of King Suraghu, the head of the Kiratas who is a friend of the Persian King, Parigha.The most famous Kiratas in Hinduism. Kirata Kingdom in Sanskrit literature and Hindu mythology refers to any kingdom of the Kirata people, who were dwellers mostly in the Himalayas (mostly eastern Himalaya) and North-East India. They took part in the Kurukshetra War along with Parvatas (mountaineers) and other Himalayan tribes. They were wide-spread in the folds and valleys of Himalayas in Nepal and Bhutan, and in the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Assam and Tripura.Though dwelling in the Himalayas and other inaccessible regions, Kiratas did not get the status of super-humans enjoyed by other tribes like the Gandharvas, Kinnaras, Kimpurushas and Yakshas. This was probably because of their greater interaction with the Vedic people, which resulted in their de-mystification.The Kirats were the aborigines of north-eastern Himalayas . According to Baburam Acharya, they came to Nepal in about 700 B.C. and ruled over it. They were short and had robust bodies, broad cheeks, flat noses, thin whiskers, and dark eyes. They were well trained in the art of warfare, and were very skilful archers. They were the ancestors of the present day Kiratas: - Kulung, Thulung and Yellung. Yalamber, the first Kirati king of Nepal belonged to the Yellung clan. According to the Kiranti genealogy, collected by Wright, twenty-nine Kings of the Kirant dynasty ruled over Nepal for 1,118 years. Some historians claim, the number of Kirati rulers was not twenty-nine but thirty-two. Irrespective of the number, the fact is that Yalambar was the first and Gasti was the last king of this dynasty
Altogether, there were 29 kings of this dynasty who ruled over Nepal for about 1225 years But according to kirant bansawali record there is 34 kiranti king who ruled the Nepal . According to the chronicle (Bamsavali) of Kirkpatrick, Kiratas ruled over Nepal from about 900 B.C. to 300 A.D. During this long period, altogether 29 Kirat Kings ruled over the country'.The twenty-nine Kings were : 1.Yalambar 2.Pari 3. Skandhar 4.Balamba 5.Hriti 6.Humati 7.Jitedasti 8.Galinja 9.Oysgja 10.Suyarma 11.Papa 12.Bunka 13.Swawnanda 14.Sthunko 15.Jinghri 16.nane 17.luka 18.Thor 19.Thoko 20.Verma 21.Guja 21.Guja 22.Pushkar 23.kKeshu 24.Suja 25.Sansa 26.Gunam 27.Khimbu 28.Patuka 29.Gasti On the basis of the Puranas and other ancient religious texts, it is presumed that the Kiratas ruled in Nepal after Gopal and Mahipal. The first king of the Kiratas was Yalamber, who defeated Bhuvan Singh, the last king of Ahir dynasty and established Kirat rule in Nepal . He extended his kingdom as far as the Tista river in the east and the Trishuli in the west. It is said that during the battle of Mahabharata, Yalamber went to witness the battle with a view to take the side of the losing party. Lord Krishna, knowing the intention of Yalamber and the strength and unity of the Kiratas, thought that the war would unnecessarily be prolonged if Yalamber sided with the Kauravas. So, by a clever stroke of diplomacy, Lord Krishna cut off Yalamber's head.Here I would like to describe how yalambers head landed in Nepal and later became worship place of nepali the AKASH BHAIRAB.Akash Bhairav, the temple of the Kirat King slain during the epic battle of Mahabharata………….The Kirats are the first documented rulers of the Kathmandu Valley . The remains of their palace are said to be in Patan near Hiranyavarna Mahavihara (called “Patukodon”).The first and best remembered king was Yalambar. Legend has it that when Yalamber heard about the great battle that was fought in the distant plains of Kurukshetra, he too wanted to participate in this battle. So donning a fierce and silver mask of Bhairab, the Lord of Terror, he went with his army. At the battle field he was met by Lord Krishna who asked him whose side he was on. He replied that he would take the side of the losing army. Lord Krishna fearing that the fearsome warrior would join the Kauravas, decapitated his head with such force that it flew past the Himalayas to Kathmandu and rested at the place where the Akash Bhairab temple now stands. The temple, a three storey structure now stands in the busy square of Indra Chowk But according to sunuwar kiranti bansawali it was not yalamber but was kirant eklabya who went to mahabharat war taking only 3 arrows which he can destroy heaven,earth and hell.Even krisna was not mighty like him so he killed him with the help of conspiracy.Nepal is a very ancient country, which was ruled by many dynasties in the past. Among them, the Kirant rule is taken as a very significant one, being the longest period that extended from pre-historic to historic period. In ancient Hindu scriptures, Nepal is referred as the "Kirant Desh" or "the Land of Kirants ".Kirants were indigenous people of Mongolian race with stout and short stature, high cheekbones, flat noses, narrow black eyes and thin moustaches and beards. They were brave and doughty warriors and very deft archers. Before the advent of the Kirants, there were Ahir and Abhir rule in the valley. Yalambar, the first Kirant King, overthrew the last king of Abhir dynasty Bhuban Shima. Thus, after defeating the last ruler of Abhir dynasty, Yalambar laid the foundation of the Kirat dynasty that lasted for about 1225 years. When Kirants occupied the valley, they made Matatirtha their capital. The Kirant kingdom during the rule of Yalambar had extended to All mountain range in west to afganstan and assam to the East. The Kirants revere him as the God King.It was during the rule of Jitedasti, the 7th Kirant king, Lord Gautama Buddha visited the valley with his several disciples. He visited the holy places of Swayambhu, Suheswari, etc and preached his religious gospels. Kirants in the valley refused to follow his doctrine, but welcomed Lord Buddha and his disciples. It is also said that King Jitedasti had helped the Pandavas in the battle of Mahabharata. It shows, of course, a historical anachronism; because according to another legend, the battle Mahabharata had taken place during the regime of King Yalambar.During the rule of the 4th Kirant King Sthunko about 2250 BC, the Indian Emperor Ashoka had his inspections engraved on rocks and a stone-pillar. The pillar known as Ashoka-pillar still stands in Lumbini, the birthplace of Gautama Buddha. This historical monument was unknown to the world until Dr. Fuher discovered it in December 1985. Nepal Government has prepared a master-plan to protect and develop the Lumbini region as a religious tourism destination.Emperor Ashoka also came to the Kathmandu Valley later. His daughter Princess Charumati accompanied him. During his stay in the valley, he built four stupas in four directions and one in the centre of Patan. These monuments speak of the historical fact of Ashoka's visit to the valley. Another fact is he arranged his daughter Charumati's marriage with a local young Prince named Devpal. Prince Devpal and his consort Charumati lived at Chabahil, near the Pashupatinath temple area. Later, Charumati built the touss of Devpatan after the death of her husband in his memory. Charumati who later on became a nun also got erected a convent where she resided and practiced Lord Buddha's doctrine.Buddhism, thus entered Nepal and flourished during the liberal rule of the Kirant dynasty. Like Buddhism, another religious doctrine Jainism was being preached the same time by Mahavir Jain in India . In this regard, Bhadrabhau, a disciple of Mahavir Jain came to Nepal in about 300 BC when the 17th Kirant king Jinghri was ruling. But comparatively, Jainism could not gain popularity like Buddhism in Nepal .When the 28th Kirant King Paruka was ruling in the valley, the Sombanshi ruler attacked his regime many times from the west. Although he successfully repelled their attacks, he was forced to move to Shankhamul from Gokarna. He had built a Royal Palace called "Patuka" there for himself. The Patuka Palace is no more to be seen, except its ruins in the form of mound. "Patuka" had changed Shankhamul into a beautiful town. The last King of the Kirant dynasty was Gasti. He proved to be a weak ruler and was overthrown by the Sombanshi ruler Nimisha. It brought to the end of the powerful Kirant dynasty that had lasted for about 1225 years.After their defeat, Kirants moved to the eastern hills of Nepal and settled down divided into small principalities. Their settlements were divided into three regions; namely, "Wallo-Kirant" or "near Kirant"{SUNUWAR} that lied to the East of Kathmandu,From Banepa to Dudh koshi "Majh-Kirant"{RAI} or "central Kirant"From Dudh koshi to Arun koshi and "Pallo-Kirant"{LIMBU} that lied to the far east of the Kathmandu valley From Arun koshi to sikkim. These regions are still heavily populated by Kirants.Among the 3 kirant’s Sunuwar are the least in number because they were the main shield for kiranti region situated in west.Whatever the invasion come from enemy they would be prime target.Since lichavi,malla and shah period they were facing prime attack.There is myth when malla king stablish his palace or fort to capture kiranti region in Dolakha.Wallo kiranti king were keep fighting with them and succeed to repeal.So they were saving kipata of kiranti but finally they loose with shah king not with the war but consipiracy.Later they easily capture majh kirant but stuck in pallo kirant because limbus seen what’s happen in wallo kirant and majh kirant already.Wallo kiranti warrior helped prithivi narayan to capture kirtipur which he lost twice. Finally kiranti warrior succeeds to capture and make him victorious. They were doing this because to make him happy and not to attack kiranti land but instead he overrun later.MUKHIYA title was given by prithivi narayan shah for sunuwar not to rebel against gorkha kingdom.That time mukhiya position was very big and powerfull it means Head Man of wallo kiranti region.They used to collect all tax from that region.CIVILISATION AND CULTURE DURING KIRAT PERIODThe long rule of the Kirants manifests that they were strong and well organized people. Their society, administrative system and economy were well organized. Later, their successors Lichchhavis also gave due importance to their legacy. They exerted great influences not only in the valley, but also outside of it in the eastern region. We still find many places, hills and rivers that are named in Kirant languages.Kirants enjoyed a free and open society. There was no gender discrimination. To facilitate justice system in the public, law courts were established at many places and effective laws were made to deal with crimes and offences. Nepal had trade link with India , Tibet (then a free country) and China . Nepalese businessmen carried out trade with these countries. Nepal chiefly exported wool, woollen goods, timber and herbs. Chanakya has mention in his famous book "Kautilya Arthasastra" that Nepalese blankets had a big market in Bihar , then called Magadh. As there was more financial prosperity in trade, more people were engaged in business than in agriculture. This factor also led to the migration of people of different racial origins with their own customs and cultures to Nepal . In course of time, these people merged into the main national system and formed part of a nation, thus helping to create and develop a healthy feeling of nationalism and brotherhood.By religion, Kirants were originally nature worshippers. They worshipped the sun, the moon, rivers, trees, animals and stones. Their primeval deities are Paruhang and Sumnima. Hinduism was introduced to and imposed on the Kirants only after the conquest of Gorkhali rulers whose root was in India . Kirants were quite tolerant and liberal to other religions. That was why Buddhism flourished during the Kirant rule in Nepal . Buddhism had rekindled a new interest and attitude among the people. Kirants had also built many towns. Shankhamul, Matatirtha, Thankot, Khopse, Bhadgoan and Sanga were prosperous cities with dense population. Thus, it can be safely said that the Kirant period had paved the way for further development and progress of Nepal in all sectors in future
References in Mahabharata
The Yamas, Kamvojas, Gandharas, Kiratas and Barbaras were mentioned together as northern tribes at (12,206). In the Krita age, they were nowhere on earth (meaning Ancient India). It is from the Treta age that they have had their origin and began to multiply. When the terrible period came, joining Treta and the Dwapara, the Kshatriyas, approaching one another, engaged themselves in battle.---Another group comprising Andrakas, Guhas, Pulindas, Savaras, Chuchukas, Madrakas were also mentioned along with the first group.The Yavanas, the Kiratas, the Gandharvas, the Chinas, the Savaras, the Barbaras, the Sakas, the Tusharas, the Kankas, the Pathavas, the Andhras, the Madrakas, the Paundras, the Pulindas, the Ramathas, the Kamvojas were mentioned together as tribes beyond the kingdoms of Aryavarta. The Aryavarta-kings had doubts on dealing with them. (12,64)Kiratas in the list of ancient Indian kingdomKiratas were mentioned as an ancient Indian tribe along with the Pundras, the Bhargas the Sudeshnas, and the Yamunas, the Sakas etc and again along with the Sudra-Abhiras, the Dardas, the Kasmiras, and the Pattis; the Khasiras; the Atreyas, the Bharadwajas, the Stanaposhikas, the Poshakas, the Kalingas, the Tomaras, the Hansamargas, and the Karamanjakas; at(6,9)
Kiratas as a Mlechha tribe
Kiratas were mentioned along with Khasas, Chivukas and Pulindas and Chinas, Hunas, Pahlavas, Sakas, Yavanas, Savaras, Paundras, Kanchis, Dravidas, Sinhalas and Keralas. All these tribes were described as Mlechha tribes. Here they were described as the protectors of sage Vasistha and his cow against the attack of king Viswamitra. (1,177).Kiranti were enemy of indo Aryan vedic people who always fought against them. Mleccha (from Vedic Sanskrit mleccha, meaning "non-Aryan, barbarian") is a derogatory term for people who did not conform with the moral and religious norms of the Indo-Aryan society. The term is not attested in the Vedas, but occurs for the first time in the late Vedic text Shatapatha Brahmana. The law giver Baudhâyana defines a Mleccha as someone "who eats cow meat or indulges in self-contradictory statements or is devoid of righteousness and purity of conduct."That time of kiranti people used to eat cow meat. In the epic Mahabharata, some Mleccha warriors are described as having "heads completely shaved or half-shaved or covered with matted locks, [as being] impure in habits, and of crooked faces." They are "dwellers of hills" and "denizens of mountain-caves." In ancient India , this term was also applied by the Aryan kingdoms to foreigners. In Bhagavata Purana and medieval literature, such as that of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, the term is used in the context of meat eaters, outcastes.Most of these mentioned mlechcha tribe were mongoloied people from central asia.Like khasas belive to be from khasakastan they were mongoloied people.
Territories of Kiratas
Kirata territories extended along the Himalayan belt of mountain ranges.Kiratas of diverse regions in ancient IndiaNumberless chiefs of the Kiratas, armed with hunting weapons and ever engaged in hunting activities, eating of fruits and roots and attired in skins (animal-skins or tree-barks), were mentioned to dwell on the northern slopes of the Himavat (Tibet) and on the mountain from behind which the sun rises (Arunachal Pradesh) and in the region of Karusha on the sea-coast (could be the mouths of Ganga in Bangladesh or the mouths of Sindhu in Pakistan) and on both sides of the Lohitya mountains (in eastern Assam and western Arunachal Pradesh). They were mentioned as bringing tribute to Yudhisthira during his Rajasuya sacrifice. They brought with them, loads upon loads of sandal and aloe as also black aloe, and heaps upon heaps of valuable skins and gold and perfumes, and ten thousand serving-girls of their own race, and many beautiful animals and birds of remote countries, and much gold of great splendour procured from mountains (2,51). The Kairatas (Kiratas), the Daradas, the Darvas, the Suras, the Vaiamakas, the Audumvaras, the Durvibhagas, the Kumaras, the Paradas along with the Vahlikas, the Kashmiras, the Ghorakas also were mentioned, here as bringin tributesThe various tribes of Kiratas were mentioned along with the Pahlavas and the Daradas and Yavanas and Sakas and the Harahunas and Chinas and Tukharas and the Sindhavas and the Jagudas and the Ramathas and the Mundas and the inhabitants of the kingdom of women and the Tanganas and the Kekayas and the Malavas and the inhabitants of Kasmira. They were described as accepting the sway of Yudhisthira, performing various offices in his palace. (3,51)The Kiratas, fierce in battle, dwelling in the fastness of Himavat, were vanquished by Karna for the sake of Duryodhana (7,4).Actually kiranti territories in past was too huge which is not only in east asia but also in west as far as ancient messopotamia present day of IRAQ. Sir Jhon Hammerton ancient history it's been said that there is relation between Kirat civilization and ancient Babylon and Mesopotamia.What it can clearly prove that kiranti were known in west as well not only in Indian continent.
Kiratas under the Himalayan kingdom called Pulinda
Pulinda king is described as the king of Kiratas also at (2,4). He is said to attend the inauguration of the new court of Pandava king Yudhisthira at Indraprastha along with many other kings of Ancient India (Bharata Varsha). His kingdom lied to close to the Kailas range in Tibet.Domains of king Suvahu, the lord of the Pulindas, is mentioned as situated on the Himalayas abounding in horses and elephants, densely inhabited by the Kiratas and the Tanganas, crowded by hundreds of Pulindas, frequented by the exotic tribes, and rife with wonders. Pandavas stayed here for some time on their onward-journey to the Himalayan regions (3,140).Then all those warriors, viz the Pandavas having in due course happily lived at Badari (Badrinath, Uttarakhand), for one month, proceeded towards the realm of Suvahu, king of the Kiratas, by following the same track by which they had come. And crossing the difficult Himalayan regions, and the countries of China, Tukhara, Darada and all the climes of Kulinda, rich in heaps of jewels, those warlike men reached the capital of Suvahu (3,176).Their final destination was the source of Yamuna. Thus they could have made a circular path, from Badari (Badrinath) to Tibet and Kashmir and finally to Himachal Pradesh.
Kiratas under Paundraka Vasudeva
There was a king named Paundraka Vasudeva, who was an enemy of Vasudeva Krishna. This king used to dress like Vasudeva Krishan and mock him. He mentioned to rule over the kingdoms of Vanga (West Bengal), Pundra (north-Bangladesh) and Kiratas (2,14). The Kiratas mentioned here were those lived in northern hilly regions of West Bengal, like the Darjiling area.
Kiratas under Bhagadatta
Kiratas (of Bhutan) and Chinas were mentioned as forming the army of Pragjyotisha (Assam) king Bhagadatta (5,19). This army took part in the Kurukshetra War for the sake of Kauravas and its size was one Akshouhini (a huge army unit).Kiratas conquered by BhimaBhima, during his military campaign in the eastern countries to collect tribute for Pandava king Yudhisthira's Rajasuya sacrifice, conquered Kirata kings, close to the Videha KingdomBhima, the son of Pandu, sending forth expeditions from Videha Kingdom, conquered the seven kings of the Kiratas living about the Indra mountain (2,29). These were considered to be the Kiriatas in Nepal.Kiratas conquered by NakulaNakula during his military campaign in the western countries to collect tribute for Pandava king Yudhisthira's Rajasuya sacrifice, conquered Kiratas in the western hillsNakula, the son of Pandu, then reduced to subjection the fierce Mlechchas residing on the sea coast (in Karachi area), as also the wild tribes of the Palhavas (an Iranian tribe), the Kiratas, the Yavanas and the Sakas (2,31). These Kiratas lied in the western mountains in Pakistan.Kiratas in Kurukhsetra WarKiratas (of Bhutan) and Chinas were part of the one Akshouhini of troops of Pragjyotisha (Assam) king Bhagadatta who joined the side of the Kauravas(5,19).Western Kiratas were mentioned along with the Sakas, and Yavanas, the Sivis and the Vasatis as marching in the huge army of Kauravas (5,198). The Sakas, the Kiratas, the Yavanas, and the Pahlavas were mentioned in a battle-array formed by the Kauravas (6,20). Similarly they are mentioned in another battle-array formed on another day at (6,50).Words of Satyaki a Yadava chief on the side of Pandavas, during Kurukshetra War:- Those other elephants 700 in number, all cased in armour and ridden by Kiratas, and decked with ornaments, the king of the Kiratas, desirous of his life, had formerly presented to Arjuna. These were formerly employed in doing good to Yudhisthira. Behold the vicissitudes that time brings about, for these are now battling against Yudhisthira. Those elephants are ridden by Kiratas difficult of defeat in battle. They are accomplished in fighting from elephants, and are all sprung from the race of Agni. Formerly, they were all vanquished in battle by Arjuna. They are now waiting for me carefully, under the orders of Duryodhana. Slaying with my shafts these Kiratas difficult of defeat in battle, I shall follow in the track of Arjuna (7,109).The Tusharas, the Yavanas, the Khasas, the Darvabhisaras, the Daradas, the Sakas, the Kamathas, the Ramathas, the Tanganas the Andhrakas (obivously not the southern Andhras), the Pulindas, the Kiratas of fierce prowess, the Mlecchas, the Mountaineers, and the races hailing from the sea-side, were all united in battle for the purpose of the Kaurava king Duryodhana. (8,73)The ruler of the Kiratas died in battle (8,5).A Naga named Lohita was mentioned at (2,9) along with other prominent Naga {kiranti} kings like Vasuki, Takshaka and Airavata.Naga King Lohita ruled a territory close to the Kasmira. Arjuna has visited this kingdom during his military campaign to the north, to collect tribute for Yudhisthira's Rajasuya sacrifice. :- Arjuna then defeated the brave Kshatriyas of Kashmira and also kirant king Lohita along with ten minor chiefs. (2,26).Having acknoledgement bravery and honesty of kiranti people later Arjuna became so much impressed with this kiranti people of asssam and decided to make permanent friendship with kiranti people so he was mentioned married with naga kiranti lady of manipur. Mahabharata tradition of being the seat of the Naga king Citravahana, whose daughter Citrangada was married to Arjuna.Ancient kiranti were nature worshipper and used to worship snake as well.This kind of all ancient religion were adopted or stolen by this indo Aryan people and made their religion.The snake - worship is more widely distributed and developed in more interesting forms, among the various tribes of Assam. Among the Khasis of Assam the most remarkable form of serpent-worship is that of U Thlen, a gigantic snake which demands to be appeased by the sacrifice of human victims, and for whose sake murders have been committed.In ancient time the ancestral god of the royal family is a snake called Pakhangba. The Rabhas worship a serpent God which once dwelt in a cave and was propitiated by the annual sacrifice of a boy and a girl.Because of this reason kiranteshore mahadev always seems carring snake on his neck.Manipur kiranti land in ancient time was so much developed and wealthy. Literally, the word ‘Manipur’ means a jewel of a land, and the state is set like a gem in the wavy mountains. According to legend, Lord Shiva and his wife Parvati danced in the valleys of Manipur accompanied with the Ghandharvas to the celestial light of Mani (jewel) from the head of the Atishesha, a serpant and that is how it has come to be called Manipuri. This dance is an inherent part of the rituals of daily life and it is performed on religious occasions and in temples throughout the region.Naga Ananta was the first among all the Naga kiranti kings. The second Naga chief Vasuki had the kingdom near Kailasa (hence the connection of Vasuki with lord Siva). The third chief Takshaka, in Takshasila both not far from Anantnag. The kingdoms of other Nagas like Karkotaka and Airavata (near Iravati River (Ravi, one among the five rivers of Punjab) were also not far away. Nagas{kiranti} had kingdoms in Nagaland and Andhra Pradesh. Arjuna's wife Ulupi was from one of such Naga kingdom (in Gangetic Plain) Arjuna's another wife Chitrangada who also was known to Ulupi was from Manipur. There are now many Naga worshiping places in South India, especially in Andhra Pradesh and Kerala.Actually this nag was not really human form of nag but one group of kiranti naga who used to worship nag and they claim they are decendant of nag.Who used to rule carrying many different kind of snake.Even making statue,picture,on flag{like on flag of bhutan you can see dragon and many chinese flag} and even real snake in their throne.So for their naga kiranti king aryan people start to give them many many name like kali nag,shesh nag,karkotak nag,vashuki nag actually all of them were kiranti people..still chinese people claim they are decendant of dragon{another form of gigantic snake}.Still bhutan is called land of thunder dragon in ancient time bhutan used to called kirant deshe{land of kirant} and their king is called DRUK GYALPO(DRAGON KING).Khamer people have mythology they came from assam nagaland and their anciestor were kiranti naga and their main deity is nag{snake}.Serpents, or nagas, play a particularly important role in Cambodian mythology. A well-known story explains the emergence of the Khmer people from the union of Indian and indigenous {kirant} elements, the latter being represented as nagas. According to the story, an Indian brahmana named Kaundinya came to Cambodia , which at the time was under the dominion of the naga king. The naga princess Soma sallied forth to fight against the invader but was defeated. Presented with the option of marrying the victorious Kaundinya, Soma readily agreed to do so, and together they ruled the land. The Khmer people are their descendants.[Same thing naga people of mayanmar –Burma their main god is nag{snake}.This nag worship system is flourished from assam to nepal,japan,china,korea and in west as well.Still in vietname many of the ancient temple are guardian by dragon.The king lalit of kathmandu nepal he brought Rato machindra nath from Assam because that time kathmandu was fall In drought.He believe rato machindra can bring rainfall. The word Naga in the Sanskrit language means snake or serpent. It seems likely that the Naga{kiranti} people were a serpent-worshipping group who were later described as serpents themselves in ancient Indian literature. This transformation or identification was much like the Vanaras (forest-dwelling humans) turning unto monkeys in the later literature.This can prove ancient one group of kiranti people used to worship snake and their king ruled with bearing snake in their throne so they were given a name naga king.Who ruled with bearing nag.Arjuna's conquests after Kurukhsetra WarCountless was the fete of Kshatriyas, of kings in myriads, who fought with Arjuna on the occasion of his military campaign to collect tribute for Yudhisthira's Ashwamedha sacrifice, for having lost their kinsmen on the field of Kurukshetra. Innumerable Kiratas also and Yavanas, all excellent bowmen, and diverse tribes of Mlechechas too, who had been discomfited before (by the Pandavas on the field of Kurukshetra), and many Arya kings, possessed of soldiers and animals, encountered Arjuna in battle (14,73). He battled with the Kasis, the Angas, the Kosalas, the Kiratas, and the Tanganas (14,83)Other ReferencesSiva and KiratasSiva who dwelled in Kailasa (Kailas range in Tibet) is mentioned as assuming the disguise of a Kirata and fighting with Arjuna in high-Himalayas (3-39,49).Siva and parbati is having incarnation of kirant and kirantni in swasthani brata katha and living around pasupatinath area like slesh mantak ban. Maha Shiva Puran described Mahadev was as a chieftain of kirat tribe. Siva sometimes assumes the form of Kiratas, Pisachas and Savaras, or that of any exotic tribes (13,14).Lord siva was clearly mentioned as kiranti cast in RIGABED which is oldest among the 4 beds.He is also mentioned as kailas pati kiranteswore mahadev.In very beginning in bed he was only simple kiranti god that time Aryan viewed him as destroyer but later he was promoted as mahadev in puranic and mahavarat time.There is no doubt he was kirant because of his nature and structure.Parbati was also kiranti women who born in himalaya her father was himalaya that time only the kirantis were aborigine in that area.Kirant women are as mighty as man they used to kill Bear and tiger when they go to jungle.Perhaps Aryan people might appreciating power of kiranti lady in that time calling many name KALI,KAPALI,BHADRAKALI,DURGA,CHANDI etc Because CHANDI DEVI is main deitys of kiranti people and considered mighty kiranti lady.Still Tripura people naga people they worship these goddess in various forms and names normally worship goddess with sacrificing animal and even human being in ancient time is done by kiranti people.Still tripura people practice this kind of religion they have own their name for all the hindu goddess like kali,durga,chandi etc.Bramhin people never seen worship goddess with sacrificing blood.Even hindu religion itself was not belongs to Aryan later they stolen.all of these goddess and god where already exist before Aryan vedic people invade India.which is proved by Japanese and Chinese historians.Lord Buddha was rebelling against hindu religion the cast sytem and that time of hindu people viewed him as demon but later because of his popularity hindu people put him as 9th incarnation of God Bisnu Which is redicules.Valmiki and KiratasValmiki was born into this hunter tribe{kiranti birth name was Ratnakar} but due to his whisdom and saintly personality he became a Brahmana who learned Sanskrit. He is the writer of the Ramayana.Absence of Bhrahmins among KiratasThe Mekalas, the Dravidas, the Lathas, the Paundras, the Konwasiras, the Saundikas, the Daradas, the Darvas, the Chauras, the Savaras, the Varvaras, the Kiratas, the Yavanas, and numerous other tribes of Kshatriyas, have become degraded into the status of Sudras through the absence of Brahmanas. (13,35)There is Doubt about Rawan as well eventhough It’s not real but only story because name of the rawan’s sister was SUBARNA KHAN.The KHAN word is only used by mongol tribe.In Mongolia and turkey{mongoloied people}used to say khan for their ruler and khanate for place where the ruler ruled.Like ghengis khan and khanate is Mongolia ulan batar.later who claimed the descendant of mongol people they used to put khan title.Nowadays you can find khan title in Pakistan but they are not mongol but they took that title because of high prestige.KIRANTI CONNECTIONS WITH CHINESE.Which I alredy mentioned that kiranti territories was very vast which touches inner part of china as well and they have very friendly and unique friendship to each other being as same yellow rece who fought in mahabharat and against this indo Aryan people who were invader of Indian continent.Their ancister were came from middle east {IRAN} 1500 BC.It is mentioned that DEVA used to drink SOMA RASH in ancient time.This soma rash means wine made from a kind of plant.This word is not Indian word,The word came from iran and afganstan.Still afgani and irani people use to say SOME For wine.It can clearly proved that Aryan {CHETRIS AND BRAMHINS}anciestor were irani The kiranti people and Chinese people have very good frendship to each other in the time of mahavarata . I would like to take reference from mahabharat epic battle.China (Cinaratha) in the Epic of Mahabharata It is well known that in the Mahabharata the Cinas appear with the Kiratas among the armies of king Bhagadatta of Pragjyotisa or Assam . In the Sabhaparvan this king is described as surrounded by the Kiratas and the Cinas. In the Bhismaparvan, the corps of Bhagadatta, consisting of the Kiratas and the Cinas of yellow color, appeared like a forest of Karnikaras . It is significant that the Kiratas represented all the people living to the east of India in the estimation of the geographers of the Puranas. Even the dwellers of the islands of the Eastern Archipelago were treated as Kiratas in the Epics. The reference to their wealth of gold, silver, gems, sandal, aloewood, textiles and fabrics clearly demonstrates their association with the regions included in Suvarnadvipa. Thus, the connection of the Kiratas and Cinas is a sure indication of the fact that the Indians came to know of the Chinese through the eastern routes and considered them as an eastern people, having affinities to the Kiratas, who were the Indo-Mongoloids, inhabiting the Tibeto-Burman regions and the Himalayan and East Indian territories,{all afganstan ,Pakistan,India{himalyan range}to Cambodia and Vietnam as well. the word Kirata being a derivation from kiranti or kirati, the name of a group of people in eastern Nepal. In early Indian literature China is invariably shown to be connected with India by a land-route across the country of the Kiratas in the mountainous regions of the north. In the Vanaparvan of the Mahabharata the Pandava brothers are said to have crossed the country of the Cinas in course of their trek through the Himalayan territory north of Badri and reached the realm of the Kirata king Subahu. The Cinas are brought into intimate relationship with the Himalayan people (Haimavatas) in the Sabhaparvan also. The land of the Haimavatas is undoubtedly the Himavantappadesa of the Pali texts, which has been identified with Tibet or Nepal . In the Sasanavamsa this region is stated to be Cinarattha. Thus, it is clear that China was known to the Indians as lying across the Himalayas and was accordingly included in the Himalayan territories. In the Nagarjunikonda inscription of Virapurusdatta , China (Cina) is said to be lying in the Himalayas beyond Cilata or Kirata. These references to the proximity of China to the Himalayan regions, inhabited by the Kiratas, show that there were regular routes through the Tibeto-Burman territories, along which the Indians could reach China .There is myth and written in many hindu religion book KIRANTESWORE{LORD SIVA}was created SANGRILA In kiranti country HIMALAYAN RANGE like NEPAL,BHUTAN AND NORTH PART OF INDIA,where the living being never have sorrow,poor,and sickness which is like heaven.Still many yogi from India went to himalaya in search of SANGRILLA.What can we get khowledge with that myth is that it can clearly shows economic status of kiranti people and their That time of Chinese and India Aryan people’s connection was clearly through the kiranti land and kiranti people which is mentioned in mahavarat.
(Source: The Soul of India ­ by Amaury de Riencourt p 141 and 161).China and kirant in Ramayan.Kiskindhakanda of Valmiki's Ramayana makes reference to Cinas as well as Parama-Cinas and associates them with the trans-Himalayan tribes of the Daradas, Kambojas, the Yavanas, the Sakas, the Kiratas, the Bahlikas, the Rishikas, and the Tañkanas of the Uttarapatha. [4].The epic literature asserts that the Cinas, Khasas, Hunas, Shakas, Kambojas, Yavanas, Pahlavas, Kiratas, Sinhalas, Mlechchas etc were created by sage
Dhobighat, Lalitpur, Kathmandu

May 17, 2009

The Yele Sambat

Chandra Prakash Sunuwar
Yele sambat is kiranti new year and it used to celebrate in the time of maghe siri panchami or sukla panchami.This new year used to celebrate since unknown ancient time by kiranti people as new year and considered this day as very lucky,Prosperouse and happy day for all kirantis.This yele name is coming from king yalamber who officially declared this day as new year for kiranti people so from his name this sambat or year is called yele sambat.This siri panchami or sukla panchami was so precious day for kiranti people when the yalamber defeated the gopal dynasty king Bhuvansingh in nepal and started kiranti era this was day of siri panchami.Altogether, there were 29 kings of this dynasty who ruled over Nepal for about 1225 years But according to kirant bansawali record there is 34 kiranti king who ruled the Nepal . According to the chronicle (Bansawali) of Kirkpatrick, Kiratas ruled over Nepal from about 900 B.C. to 300 A.D. During this long period, altogether 29 Kirat Kings ruled over the country'.yalamber was such mighty and legendary kirant king who led the kirata in legendary kuruchetra war of Mahavarata. Kirant people considered him as god king as incarnation of mahadeva so he is called AKASH VAIRAB AS WELL. Another form of lord Siva or lord of terror. The temple, a three storey structure now stands in the busy square of Indra Chowk is the temple of AKASH VAIRAB or temple of legendary kirant king yalamber.The twenty-nine Kings were : 1.Yalambar 2.Pari 3. Skandhar 4.Balamba 5.Hriti 6.Humati 7.Jitedasti 8.Galinja 9.Oysgja 10.Suyarma 11.Papa 12.Bunka 13.Swawnanda 14.Sthunko 15.Jinghri 16.nane 17.luka 18.Thor 19.Thoko 20.Verma 21.Guja 21.Guja 22.Pushkar 23.kKeshu 24.Suja 25.Sansa 26.Gunam 27.Khimbu 28.Patuka 29.GastiThe last King of the Kirant dynasty was Gasti. He proved to be a weak ruler and was overthrown by the Sombanshi ruler Nimisha. It brought to the end of the powerful Kirant dynasty.When they defeated by lichabi king Again they Regrouped and formed the another kirant kingdom in banepa that day was maghe siri panchami or sukla pagnchami.Their new kirant kingdom was started from Sanga Bhanjyang hill Kathmandu valley to Sikkim in east and remain as hostile power for the lichavi.After Twenty years of ruling in banepa as kiranti kingdom Later this kingdom was divided into 3 small kingdom they were called Wallo kirant, majh kirant and pallo kirant with the different kings. Among them wallo kirant had boarder from sanga bhanjyang from west to dudh koshi in east.Friest king of wallo kirant was king Binicha.He was such mighty king and had power of wishful death only. according to myth he had hidden Tupi{long hair in middle of the head} without cutting this he wouldn’t die this was his secrecy and famous for magic and art of warfare. According to sunuwar kirant chronicle he used to form this wallo kirant in the time of maghe siri panchami or sukla panchami another form of yele sambat in Bhuji kot gaun in ramechap district so he declared that day is new year as it is like before. This new year used to celebrate like chandi beating dhole,chyamta and sacrificing many animals and eating, drinking making addition they used to do stick fighting, sword fighting khukuri fighting and game of archery. This kind of game was so dangerous could easily break head and vulnerable to die as well but this was kiranti tradition and game of warrior race so nothing to do with this festival. Once passer-by two saints yogi named Kalbhairung and kal narsing seen this wallo kiranti new year and so much horrified. They Try to teach sunuwar this festival need to avoid because they seen many warrior bleeding and they took sword from them and brought In Hanuman Dhoka in Kathmandu. In addition all kirant young lad and lady get together and make appointment for marriage if they like each other. Pierced the ear for young people to wear rings, cut the hair, get together the relatives, Build new houses, To give new clothes this is tradition in sunuwar.There is say for kiranti people no need to see Sahit{good day} for start life journey. This festival was completely banned after conquest of gorkha darwar but still remain in the time of rana government illegally but after rana government this festival is completely banned all sort of kiranti documents were burned and destroy which the office used to call Jatiya nasta bivag {gopal Gurung} but still old wallo kiranti sunuwar used to practice and celebrate this new year in time of maghe siri panchami.So recently Friest of all wallo kiranti sunuwar start to celebrate this new year almost 10 years ago officially from sunuwar welfare society. Now limbu organisation recognise this new year as kiranti new year and start to follow sunuwar’s.This is not only by sunuwar and limbu but we all kiranti must recognise our festival and revive our ancient pride. Nepal is kirant Deshe and ridiculously we are not celebrating our kirant festival and religion. We are such rich in historically, culturally and traditionally but we seems losing our all faith. This festival is not only lucky for kiranti but many other people as well. In the time of siri panchami lord Buddha used to born so all Buddhist celebrate Buddha jayanti{Buddha day} who was one of the greatest kirata scholar in past who gave Nirvana for all human being. He was the great teachers of all human race. Same day Chinese people have Chinese new year which is called chunche there is strong connection with Chinese new year chunche and yele sambat. yele sambat and chunche might be same in past because kirata people were originated in Hunan province of china 6000 BC.In this siri panchami Hindu goddess saraswati puja{worship}is done. She is the goddess of learning. She used to be kiranti goddess Vedic people just forcefully trying to bring in Hindu fold.Sarswati in the Vedas was goddess of wealth, fruits and well being not as goddess of learning and intelligence. Sarswati today is clothed with white colour which had derived from Khuluma of Tripuri kiranti people who is goddess of cotton and learning as she teaches us to weave and design the clothes. Khuluma is considered white colour as she for cotton. It clearly shows goddess of learning saraswati is our kiranti god So value of siri panchami or sukla panchami is something beyond our imagination for kiranti people. The full moon has different place for all living being. This is day of god,goddest,legendary story of wolf. All living being are happy to see full moon.Kiranti people have myth and belief that day all SIME,BHUME,NAG AND NAGINI{Goddess of earth, goddess of water and serpent king} They all come out on Earth to breath and see the human activity and for blessing if they worship and appease them. This day people have belief that day naga king or serpent god change him as human form so come in house disguising as yogi and blessed people so some people worship naga as well.Kiranti sunuwar has belief this day is important and it’s called KHARO BAR OR KHARO DIN so they have belief, that night 7 brother BANESKHANDI{JUNGLE GOD} come to visit every GOTH{HUT}to bless animal. There is folk lore that day kiranteswore mahadeva and kirantni parbati take bath in high Himalayan holy lake like JHATA POKHARI,NIRMAL POKHARI,BHUT POKHARI,PANCH POKHARI,GOSAI KUNDA,TILICHO TAL,CHYO ROLPA,HALESWARI,KAILASH MAN SAROWAR TAL AND other many more. For novelist, story writer, poem writer and lovers this full moon is something different. According to science sun start to move from south pole to north pole so this new year the day of siri panchami is really really essential. All this kind of worship used to do in kiranti new year day the yele sambat.This yele sambat which we celebrating today in maghe siri panchami created confused for kiranti people who doesn’t have sufficient historical knowledge about this and misunderstood as MAGHE SAKRANTI but this is not maghe sakranti this is yele sambat kiranti new year which we celebrate in maghe siri panchmi.Because of time and difficulty of fixing the time some kiranti organisation start to celebrate in time of magh 1 gate but it has to be in time of maghe siri panchami or sukla panchami or basanta panchami.Kirata race were such ancient and used to tussle with god,goddest and demon in their daily life. They were only not ancient but also had very developed civilization like Indus civilization and Mohenjo-Daro civilization. Ancient Indian civilization is civilization of kirata.This great civilization was situated in north east Himalayan range of Mahavarata.According to S.k chattarji north eastern kiranti civilization was key civilization of ancient India. They were the supreme power in that era. If you see the 10000 BC Scientific human evolution film then you can find out how civilize we kiranti were in past. When southern Chinese people used to cultivate paddy and living with happy civilize life that time how westerner were struggling for resources and living in cave like jungle man. Due to dynamic of time they start to loose their colony,civilization,culture,tradition one after another but now this is our duty to restore ancestral pride and their spirit.we must revive our own culture rather than to follow someone’s religion, culture and tradition so This is the time for all kiranti to celebrate our own legendary new year the yele sambat.
Dhobighat, Lalitpur, Kathmandu

समावेशी शिक्षा आजको आवश्यकता

रामकिसुन उराँव
हाम्रो देशमा सदियौँदेखि चल्दै आएको एकतन्त्रीय शासन प्रशासनका बखत बनेको शिक्षानीति हालसम्म चलिरहेको हुँदा यसले एक्काइसौँ शताब्दीको आधुनिक शिक्षानीतिलाई प्रतिनिधित्व गर्न सकिरहेको छैन । शासक वर्गको मात्र गुण गाइने शिक्षा भएकोले यसले नेपाली जनताको व्यावहारिक, सांस्कृतिक पक्ष र सीपमूलक कार्यदक्षता प्रदान गर्ने खालको छैन । त्यसैले यस एकपक्षीय शिक्षानीतिलाई समावेशी, सीपमूलक र आधुनिक बनाइनु आजको जल्दोबल्दो आवश्यकता हो ।
एकपक्षीय शिक्षानीतिका कारण हाल हजारौँ युवा विभिन्न शैक्षिक तहका प्रमाणपत्रहरू हातमा राखेर रोजगारीको खोजीमा भौतारिरहेका छन् । व्यावहारिक शिक्षा प्रणाली नभएकै कारण आज ती युवा शैक्षिक बेरोजगारका मारमा पिल्सिएका छन् । यसरी शैक्षिक बेरोजगार भएको देखेर गाउँघरमा अभिभावकहरूले आफ्ना बालबालिकाहरूलाई पढ्न विद्यालय पठाउनु भन्दा पनि काम गर्न अर्काको घरदैलोमा पठाउँछन् । पढेर के हुन्छ ? पढेर जागिर पाइँदैन । जागिर नपाएपछि पढेको के काम ? ज्याला मजदुरी गरेरै खानुपर्छ भने किन पढ्ने ? नपढी दैनिक मजदुरी गरेर खानु नै बेस हुन्छ भन्ने अवधारणाबाट ग्रसित देखिन्छन् प्रायः ग्रामीण भेकका जनसमुदाय ।
यस किसिमको कुण्ठित मानसिकताबाट उकास्न शिक्षानीतिलाई समावेशी, सीपमूलक र आधुनिक बनाइनु अपरिहार्य देखिन्छ । हाम्रो देश बहुसांस्कृतिक, बहुधार्मिक, बहुभाषिक मुलुक भएकोले ती विविध संस्कृति, धर्म, भाषा जस्ता महत्वपूर्ण अवयवहरूलाई नयाँ शिक्षानीतिमा समावेश गरिनुपर्दछ । बहुभाषिक शिक्षानीति ल्याइयो भने दुर्गम तथा गाउँघरका बालबालिका जो नेपाली भाषा जान्दैनन् तिनीहरू आफ्नै मातृभाषा वा स्थानीय भाषामा शिक्षा हासिल गर्न पाउँछन् भने उनीहरूमा विद्यालय छोड्नु वा छोडाउनुपर्ने बाध्यता रहँदैन । एकलभाषा शिक्षणबाट सिकाइ र बुझाइमा तालमेल नमिली अप्ठ्यारो पारी नेपालीइतर भाषिक समुदायका बालबालिका विद्यालय छोड्न बाध्य हुन्छन् ।
शिक्षाको माध्यम बहुभाषिक मात्र भएर पुग्दैन । शैक्षिक सामग्रीहरूमा पनि फेरबदल गरिनुपर्दछ । शिक्षाका हरेक तहमा आदिवासी जनजातिलगायत विभिन्न जातजातिका पुख्र्यौली पेसा, संस्कृति, सीप र आदिवासी ज्ञानलाई संरक्षण, संवर्द्धन र विकास गर्नका लागि समावेश गरिनुपर्दछ । जसले गर्दा सबै समुदायका बालबालिका लाभान्वित भएर शिक्षा हासिल गरिसकेपछि पनि सरकारी जागिरको मुख ताक्नुपर्ने अवस्थाबाट मुक्त भई आफ्नै पुख्र्यौली पेसा र संस्कृतिलाई जोगाउन सक्छन् । केही आदिवासी जनजातिका भाषा, संस्कृति र धर्मलाई शिक्षाको मूलधारमा ल्याइएका छन् । तर त्यति मात्रले पूर्ण समानुपातिक समावेशी हुन नसक्ने हुनाले नेपालका सबै भाषा र भाषिकाहरूलाई शिक्षामा समाहित गरिनुपर्छ । मातृभाषा शिक्षाको माध्यमबाट हरेक समुदायका बालबालिकालाई शैक्षिक, बौद्धिक र चेतना अभिवृद्धि गराउन ठूलो सहयोग पुर्‍याउँछ । साथै तिनीहरूले आफ्नो भाषा सिक्न पाउनुका साथै संस्कृति, धर्म र सिङ्गो राष्ट्रकै सँस्कृति आफ्नै भाषाको माध्यमबाट सजिलै सिक्न सक्छन् र उच्च शिक्षाका लागि सक्षम हुन्छन् ।
तराईका भित्री गाउँका केही समुदायहरू मुसहर -सदा, ऋषिदेव), चमार -राम), डोम -मरीक), तत्मा
-खत्वे), दुसाद, बाँतर, आदि हरेक दृष्टिकोणबाट पछाडि परेका वा पारिएका छन् । ती समुदायका मानिसहरूलाई शिक्षा के हो ? शिक्षा किन चाहिन्छ ? केही मतलब छैन । दैनिक अर्काको घरमा काम गरेर बिहान-बेलुकाको जोहो गर्न तल्लीन हुन्छन् । उनीहरूले चाहेर पनि आफ्ना छोराछोरीहरूलाई विद्यालय पठाउनसकेका छैनन् । कोही अभिभावकले बालबालिकालाई विद्यालय पठाइहाल्यो भने पनि ती केटाकेटीहरू भाषा नजानेकोले शिक्षकले पढाएको कुरा नबुझ्ने र घरमा पनि कसैले सिकाइदिने व्यवस्था नहुँदा विद्यालय छाड्न बाध्य छन् ।
यस्ता उत्पीडित वर्गलाई यस समस्याबाट मुक्ति दिलाउन तिनीहरूका लागि शिक्षामा क्रान्तिकारी परिर्वतन ल्याउनु अति आवश्यक छ । बालबालिकालाई मातृभाषा शिक्षाको माध्यमबाट मूलधारमा ल्याउन सकिन्छ भने तिनीहरूका अभिभावकहरूलाई साक्षर बनाउन स्थानीय भाषाको माध्यमबाट स्वरोजगार बनाउने किसिमको अनौपचारिक शिक्षानीति ल्याइनुपर्दछ ।
यस्तै तराई मूलका आदिवासी जनजातिहरू जस्तै उराँव, मुण्डा, खडिया, किसान, थारु, राजवंशी, धिमाल, मेचे, सन्थाल आदिका मौलिक संस्कृति छन् । पौराणिक कलाकृतिहरू हालसम्म विद्यमान छन् । उपयुक्त शिक्षानीति अभावका कारण ती मौलिक संस्कृति, कला, सीपहरू पुस्तान्तरण हुन सकिरहेको छैन । यसो हुँदा आउँदा केही वर्षमै ती मौलिकपन लोप हुने खतरामा छ भने अर्कोतिर मौलिक पेसाको महत्व एवं उत्पादित हस्त कलाकृति पनि उचित बजार व्यवस्थापन नहुँदा लोप हुने अवस्थामा पुगेको छ । तसर्थ यस्तो अवस्थाबाट बचाउन र मौलिक विविधतालाई संरक्षण, संवर्द्धन र विकास गर्न स्थानीय समुदायलाई तिनीहरूकै भाषाको माध्यमबाट तिनीहरूका मौलिक सीप, कला, संस्कृति जस्ता कुरालाई औपचारिक तथा अनौपचारिक शिक्षाको रूपमा पठनपाठन गराई उत्पादित हस्तकला, कृतिको उचित बजार व्यवस्थापन गराइनुपर्दछ ।
हिमाली, पहाडी आदिवासी जनजातिलगायत केही अन्य समुदाय जङ्गली जडीबुटी सम्बन्धमा निकै जानकारी राख्छन् । जङ्गली जडीबुटी कहाँ र कसरी चिन्ने ? केका लागि कति र कसरी प्रयोग गर्ने ? भन्ने पोख्त ज्ञान हुन्छ उनीहरूमा । यस्ता ज्ञानवर्द्धक कुराहरूलाई शिक्षाका दायरामा ल्याइनुपर्छ । जडीबुटीकै व्यापार गरेर जीविकोपार्जन गर्ने कैयौँ परिवार छन् । यस्ता जडीबुटीजन्य पदार्थ पहिचान गर्ने ज्ञान र त्यसका संवर्द्धन र व्यवस्थापन गर्न उचित पहलको आवश्यकता देखिन्छ । त्यस्ता जडीबुटी जन्य पदार्थको परम्परागत प्रयोग विधि र आयुर्वेदिक ज्ञानलाई शिक्षाको दायरामा ल्याई पठनपाठन गराइयो भने घरेलु स्वास्थ्य उपचारमा जनचेतना अभिवृद्धि भई आम नेपालीले स्वस्थ जीवनयापन गर्न पाउनुका साथै उपचारको नाममा हुने फजुल खर्च रोक्न सकिन्छ ।

May 11, 2009

फिडेल क्यास्ट्रोको हत्याका लागि ६३८ योजना

सम्पूर्ण जीवन अमेरिकासँग लाप्पा खेलेर बिताएका क्युबाली नेता फिडेल क्यास्ट्रोको हत्या गर्न जम्माजम्मी ६ सय ३८ योजना बनाइएछन् । यीमध्ये अधिकतम योजना सुपि्रम अमेरिकाको जासुसी संस्था सिआइएद्वारा बनाइएका थियो । र, अमेरिकामा निर्वासित क्युबालीहरूद्वारा पनि केही खेप योजना बनाइएका थिए । करिब आधा शताब्दीभित्र बनाइएका हुन् यी योजना । संसारका अन्य कुनै नेताको हत्याका लागि यति धेरै योजना सायदै बनाइएका छन् । यिनै हत्या योजनाका नालीबेली समेटेर यौटा डकुमेन्ट्री फिल्म नै बनाइएको छ- सिक्स हन्ड्रेड थर्टी एट वेज टु किल क्यास्ट्रो ।तर, यति धेरै हत्या योजनाका बाबजुद क्यास्ट्रोको ज्यानमा एक खत लगाउन पनि सकेन सिआइएले । भाग्यमा विश्वास गर्नेहरूका लागि क्यास्ट्रो संसारको सबैभन्दा बलियो 'ग्रह' भएका नेता हुन् । कतिका लागि भने क्यास्ट्रो इस्पातले बनेका मान्छे हुन् ।उनको हत्या-योजना तथा प्रयासमा अपनाइएका विधिहरू पनि कम्ती रोचक थिएनन् । विस्फोटक सिगारदेखि लिएर विषालु बल पोइन्टसम्मलाई अस्त्र बनाउन खोजिएको थियो । सिआइएले सुन्दरीहरूलाई पनि हतियार बनायो । तर, कसैले उनको रौँ पनि झार्न सकेनन् । सिआइए क्यास्ट्रोको हत्या गर्न यति इच्छुक र आतुर थियो कि ऊ जेम्स बन्डजस्ता उपन्यासका लागि समेत उडन्ते र हावादारी लाग्ने हत्याका विधिहरू अपनाउन तयार थियो । सिआइएका केही अधिकारीका भनाइमा क्युबा पूर्णचन्द्रजस्तो थियो, जो आफ्ना प्रभावले अमेरिकालाई पागल बनाइरहेको थियो । र, पागल अमेरिका फिडेलको हत्या गर्न जुनसुकै पागलपन अख्तियार गर्न तयार थियो । सिआइएका विभिन्न हत्या-योजनामध्ये सबभन्दा चर्चित थियो- सिगारका सोखिन क्यास्ट्रोको मुखैमा सिगार पड्काइदिने । त्यस्तै, डाइभिङ सुट योजना पनि कम्ती रोचक थिएन । क्यास्ट्रो समुद्रभित्र सयर गर्न असाध्यै मन पराउँथे । अमेरिकी योजना थियो- यौटा यस्तो डाइभिङ सुट बनाउने, जसलाई लगाउने व्यक्ति छालासम्बन्धी असाध्य रोगबाट संक्रमित होस् । तर, अमेरिकाको यो योजना पनि यत्तिकै तुहियो । क्लिन्टन प्रशासनले पनि क्यास्ट्रोलाई समुद्रमै उडाइदिने योजना बनाएको थियो । तर, अरू धेरै योजनाझैँ ड्रइङ बोर्डभन्दा बाहिर आउन सकेन यो योजना पनि । सन् १९५९ मा क्यास्ट्रो सत्तामा आएदेखि नै उनको हत्या-प्रयास सुरु भएको थियो । सन् १९६१ मा अमेरिकी सरकारको सहयोगमा अमेरिकामा निर्वासित क्युबालीहरूले बे अफ पिग्ज्मा क्यास्ट्रो, उनका भाइ राहुल र अनन्य मित्र चे ग्वेभाराको हत्या गर्ने प्रयास गरेका थिए । अमेरिकी पूर्वराष्ट्रपति जोन एफ केनेडीको हत्या भएकै दिन सिआइएले एक एजेन्टलाई क्यास्ट्रोको हत्या गर्न पठाएको थियो । विषालु बलपेनद्वारा उनको हत्या गर्ने योजना थियो । तर, उक्त एजेन्ट असफल भयो । फिडेलकी पूर्वप्रेमिकालाई पनि सिआइएले प्रयोग गर्न बाँकी राखेन । सिआइएले उनलाई विषालु पिल्स (चक्की) हरू दिएको थियो । कोल्ड क्रिमको बट्टामा लुकाइएका ती विषालु पिल्स पग्लिएछन् । जब उनी क्यास्ट्रोको कोठामा पुगिन्, क्यास्ट्रोले उनलाई आफ्नो पेस्तोल दिँदै भने, 'मलाई थाहा छ, तिमी मलाई मार्न आएकी हौ ।' उनी छाती तन्काएर गोली थाप्न तयार भए । तर, उनकी पूर्वप्रेमिकाले उनीमाथि गोली चलाउन सकिनन् । सन् २००० मा क्यास्ट्रो पानामाको भ्रमणमा थिए । उनी बोल्ने मञ्चमुन्तिर ९० केजी विस्फोटक पदार्थ राखिएको थियो । क्यास्ट्रोको निजी सुरक्षा-दस्ताले यो षड्यन्त्र पत्ता लगाएको थियो । र, क्यास्ट्रो बाँच्न पुगेका थिए । यस षड्यन्त्रका नाइके थिए लुइस पोसाडा । उनी लामो समयदेखि अमेरिकामा निर्वासनमा थिए र सिआइएका लागि काम गर्थे । क्यास्ट्रोको हत्या गर्न समर्पित भएर लाग्नेहरूमा उनी अग्रणी थिए । अमेरिकाको फ्लोरिडा राज्यमा क्यास्ट्रोको असफल हत्या प्रयासमा संलग्नहरूमध्ये अधिकांशका घर छन् । उनीहरूलाई अमेरिकी सरकारले संरक्षण दिएको छ भनिन्छ ।

May 9, 2009

History of sunuwar kirant and their culture

Chandra Prakash Sunuwar
According to Sanskrit literature and mythology, Kathmandu valley was huge lake where Naga used to live. Legend has it that the Kathmandu valley was once a large lake surrounded by mountains. It was known as Nag Hirat(Tank of serpents). As Nagas or magical snake beings were said to guard treasure lying at the bottom of the lake. There was no human habitats, around the hill of valley Kiranti hunter used to hunt. According to Mahavarata lord Siva himself went to Nepal disguising himself as Kirant hunter and hunting in Kathmandu hill later lord Manju Shree came to Kathmandu from China-Tibet. He saw god Mahadeva meditating on lotus of Kathmandu lake so he worship and greet Mahadeva and cut the Chovar hill to pass the water. When all water passed through Chovar Hill, Gopal and Mahispal people came to settle and rule. Neolithic tools found in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people have been living in the Himalayan region for at least 9,000 years. It appears that a people who were probably of Tibeto-Burman Kiranti. They were living and hunting since ancient time in valley which is mentioned in most of the ancient Hindu literature including kiranti chronicle, mythology and folklore. Though very little is known about the early history of Nepal, legends and documented references, like the following, reach back to the first millennium BCE: The epic Ramayana, which dates from an era before the Mahabharata, states that Mithila, currently known as Janakpur in Nepal, is the birth place of goddess Sitaand there is Siva Dhanus(Bow of lord Siva) still we can see in temple of Dhanusha which the story of Dhanusha is mentioned in Ramayana. Also, the presence of historical sites, e.g. Valmiki(kirant)Ashram, indicates the presence of Sanatana(eternal) Hindu culture in Nepal at that period and also that time Nepal used to call Kirant Deshe. The epic Mahabharatamentions the Kiratas among the inhabitants of Nepal. Kirati king Yalamber had the dubious honour of being slain in the battle of the Mahabharata, in which gods and mortals fought alongside each other. Legend credits him with meeting Indra, the lord of heaven, who ventured into the Valley in human guise. One of the very famous kirant king Bhagadatta son of Narkasura of Pragjyotishapur(Assam) took Kuruchetra war and formed two very mighty battalion of Cinas and Kiratas. Battalion of yellow race. Another Tripuri Kiranti king Trilochana is also seems taking part of this mythological war. Apart from that there is uncountable Kirant kings were seems taking part in war which we can't mention all of those you can see in my another article we kirant mongol race. They were also mentioned in Ramayana in Ajodhya Kanda's Sarga 15 section, with their hair tied up in knots, shining like gold and pleasant to look upon, bold enough to move under water, terrible, veritable tiger-men. According to ancient Sanskrit literature not only Nepal but all country of Himalayan range belongs to Kirant territories. According to some of the chronicles the successors of Nepal sage the Gopalcow herd family whose names often end in Gupta and are said to have ruled for some 491 years but Wright, a British Surgeon in British Residence, writes that eight Gopala rulers ruled this kingdom for 521 years. Their First king was Bhuktaman. They are said to have been followed by the "Buffalo-herder Dynasty", established by an Indian Rajputnamed Bhul Singh but according to many historian they were not Indian Rajput but another group of Kirata or local mongoloid people because that time Aryan migration was not happened. Aryan migration only happen very late time of Nepalese history. They might be present day of Newars who were pure mongoloid kirata in past but after century's of inter-culturizations make them mixed race. Still they are given name according to their job like who do the job of Tama(copper) are called Tamrakar, same thing who work in paddy field are called Jyapu. Another mongoloid people still live around Kathmandu who are called Gopali and they claim they were descendant of Gopal dynasty. Same thing there is Sing surname in Newar clan they might be Mahispal Sings. The Name of the magical or Ahir dynasty kings were Basa Simha, Jayamati Ayamati Simha, Bhuban Simha etc. Inscriptions found on archaeological stoneworks, which list mostly the dates and commissioners of these constructions, also communicate royal edicts, religious Mantras or historical notes sometimes and, through the corroboration of local myths with such evidence is available as valuable for history of Nepal. The first inscription with the name of the king Mandeva and date 386 (464 c) was found in front of the Temple of Changunarayan near Bhaktapur. The name of four kings as Brishadeva, Shankaradeva, Dharmadeva and Mandeva are inscribed in the pillar inscription of Changunarayan. A people prior to the Licchavihave been identified, known as Kirata.
Kirant period
Nepal 's recorded history began with the kirantis, who arrived in the 7th or 8th century BCE from the east where they used lived around Yollung River nearby Dudh Koshi at that time. They were doughty warriors, deft archers, hunters and very famous for art of warfare and also very good sheep farmers and fondness of liquor, carrying long knives Khukuri. The Kirants ruled for about 1225 years (800 BCE-300 CE), their reign had a total of 29 kings during that time but according to Kiranti chronicle there is 34 Kiranti kings. Many different scholar have different opinion about their period of ruling but most of them firmly believed that Kirant dynasty ruled Nepal from 3102 B.C. to 7th century A.D. and after that around 3rd century A.D (250 A.D.), Licchavi or Lichchhavis dynasty finally took over civilization of Kathmandu valley-Chronological history of Nepal recorded that Gautama Buddha visited Kathmandu valley during the reign of Kiranti king Jitadasti. He was the 7th dynasty of Yalamber; Yalamber established his kingdom around 3102 B.C. Their first and best remembered king was Yalamber, who finds a reference in the epic Mahabharata. Kiranti are Mongoloid race. Northern part of Nepal and India including Sikkim, Bhutan, Kumaon, Indus civilization and Assam were the cradle of their civilization. They were also known at that time as northern mountaineers or ranger of jungle because of their dwelling in the nook and corners of the hills and mountain. Expert says they were also original tribes in Deccan plateau of India. Historians have agreed that there were 29 rulers of the Kirant dynasty. They were: (1) Yalambar, (2) Pari, (3) Skandhar, (4) Balamba, (5) Hriti, (6) Humati, (7) Jitedasti, (8) Galinja, (9) Oysgja, (10) Suyarma, (11) Papa, (12) Bunka, (13) Swawnanda, (14) Sthunko, (15) Jinghri, (16) Nane, (17) Luka, (18) Thor, (19) Thoko, (20) Verma, (21) Guja, (22) Pushkar, (23) Keshu, (24) Suja, (25) Sansa, (26) Gunam, (27) Khimbu, (28) Patuka, (29) Gasti. Later, Asoka the famous Mauryan ruler of India visited Kathmandu valley in 3rd century B.C. (250 BC) during the reign of 14th king of Kirant dynasty-Sthunko. At that time Nepal was known as Kirati Desa(land of Kirat ). The history have recorded that Asoka visited Kathmandu valley including Lumbini, birthplace of Gautam Buddha. He visited because of its famous reputation as sacred place. He left unmistakable footprint by marrying his daughter Charumati to Devapala Kirant. A former town of Devpatan near Pasupatinath is formed in his memory by Charumati and later she built Charumati Vihar in Chabahil near Gokarna forest. Gorkarna used to be the capital of Kiranti kings though due to political condition of that time the capital was often shifted around. Asoka built four Stupas at four points in Patan. During the time when he visited the valley Buddhism had already flourished. Licchavi had their capital at Godavari at the foot of Pulchauki Danda(Hill). When last kirant king Gasti was defeated then glory of Kirant era in Kathmandu valley is gone but they regrouped and formed another mighty Kiranti kingdom in Banepa. It had boarder from Sanga Bhanjyang kathmandu west to Sikkim in east. This kingdom remain till twenty years but later divided into three Kirant kingdom with the different kings. They were Wallo kirant, Majh kirant, Pallo kirant. (1) Wallo kirant means Sunuwar, (2) Majh kirant means Rai, and (3) Pallo kirant means Limbu Among them wallo Kirant had boarder from Sanga Bhanyang west kathmandu to Dudh Koshi in east. First king of wallo kirant was king Binicha. He was such mighty king and had power of wishful death only. According to myth he had hidden Tupi(long hair in middle of the head) without cutting this he would not die this was his secrecy and famous for magic and art of warfare. He was master of medicine known as medicine Guru and such fierce fighter of Budi Milu(sword). According to myth still Binicha king and queen wander around kirant land Bhuji Kotgaun and Bindra Ban(Tambe jungle). Then after other kings and queens were as follows. (1) Mafai Rani Mafai Raja, (2) Golma Rani Golma Raja, (3) Chuphai Rani Chuphai Raja, (4) Kalo Rani Kalo Raja, (5) Hupin Rani Hupin Raja, (6) Thaku Rani Thaku Raja, (7) Gosai Rani Gosai Raja, (8) Naisa Rani Naisa Raja, (9) Chai Rani Chai Raja, (10) Kuse Rani Kuse Raja, (11) Dewla Rani Dewla Raja, (12) Thadi Rani Thadi Raja, (13) Falsi Rani Falsi Raja, etc.Still Sunuwar kiranti people worship all of their kings which is mentioned by Nakso, Paibo, Gyaymi, and Mundum. Unfortunetly all of the related kiranti document has been destroyed by past regime of Nepal in purpose of destroying all the kiranti history and they lost their majesty. But fortunately still we have fort, temple and palace of wallo kiranti which couldn't destroy by our enemy. I would like to mention about two of our kiranti kings temple which is still survived as fossils and worshiped by kirantis.
Kalo Hopo
There is temple of Hupin Kalo Hopo or Kalo Raja and Kalo Rani Sunuwar kiranti king and queen in Bhuji. He was one of the greatest legendary successor king after king Binicha who had kingdom in Bhuji Kotgaun in Ramchap district. Every day Sunuwar kiranti devotee and other races as well go to worship in temple Kalo Hopo for blessing. He was king during the Malla era who were ruling in Kathmandu Valley. Wallo kiranti Sunuwar had fears battle with the Malla king who came to attack wallo kirant and build palace in Dolakha. Still there is many many wallo kiranti fort, graveyard and palace which I mentioned in my another article "we kirant mongol race". Still there is myth and folklore how wallo kiranti Sunuwar repeal the attack from Malla king. Still there is talked among people how Sunuwar kiranti fired the gun from Namdu to Dolakha and laid trap and killing Mallas shooting arrows beyond Tama koshi river so Malla couldn't cross the border line from Tama Koshi. That's why it is mentioned in history Malla had only boarder till Tamakoshi in east. Population of Sunuwar kiranti seems least than Rai and Limbu but they were remain as boarder or shield of kiranti region because without winning the wallo kirant you can't go to majh kirant and pallo kirant so these two kirant majh kirant and pallo kirant always remain untouched. When the Sunuwar kiranti died in battle they used to bring in special place for soldier to burry present day of Chyane which is in Dolakha district purely inhabitant by the Sunuwar kiranti. Still Sunuwar people of Chyane worship for their dead spirit burning many different essence like Sundhupi, Chenchen dhupi, Koro dupi and offer Trisul in nowadays place is called Trisule which is not far from Chyane, etc. There is say ancient wallo kirant buried their precious treasure(Gaddhan) in Dev Gaira in Rasnalu in Ramechhap district. This place is fully covered by huge rocks and rubbles people believe which is guarding by huge Kali Naga(black snake). Still there is festival happen in month of July in night. This Sunuwar king and queen Kalo Rani Kalo Raja are worshiped in time of full moon. It's very difficult to make him happy so he is offered with the crown made by the gold and silver. Many different type and colour of clothes, Jama, Pagari, Khukuri, Sword, bow and arrow, many different type of precious ornaments like diamond, coral and pearl including trident and bell made by copper if possible. He is also offered sacrifice of cock, hen, pegion, eggs many different type of delicious royal food and for Kalo Rani need many different kind of ornaments, perfume, essence and clothes. If they are happy then all kiranti land become safe, peace and rich. You get proper partner for marriage and will blessed birth of son and daughter whatever you wish. Number of domestic animal will be increase in their number. This is what the Sunuwar kiranti devotee believe. Many historian believed ancient kirant which is directly descendant of Yalamber went to live in between Sunkoshi and Dudh koshi which is clearly land of wallo kiranti Sunuwar. Bahing Rai, Sunuwar and Rumdali Rai were same clan in past because they have more than 90% similar in their language and culture.
Chai Hopo
Chai is another wallo kiranti king he is known as Hopo Sikari Chai. Hopo means king in Sunuwar language. He has temple in top of the hill named Tambe surrounded by dence forest. Every year in month of July there is huge festival happen. Many people go to worship this Sunuwar king. He was hunter as well so he shoot the arrow and lay trap and put Liso(a kind of glue made from local plant named Kel) in purpose of trapping the birds) in eye of people if they show disrespect in jungle and kirant land so if people became sick of eye they worship and offer white and red colour of cock, many different colourful clothes, Trisul and Ghanta(trident and bell) to this Sunuwar king Sikari Chai Hopo. It is believed he is guarding the gold, copper, iron, animal and jungle of Tambe Hill. This Tambe is very rich for mineral and wild animals. He considered eye of Sunuwar kiranti land as well so his temple is on top of the hill so he can see any enemy coming towards kiranti land in intention of invading then enemy will be punished with making blind. He used to ruled in Bhuji Kotgaun so far this is mythological and archaeological place of Sunuwar kings if we go through proper research.
Kiranti Sunuwar culture and their tradition
Sunuwar kirant are called Duwal Bandhi Sikari that means Hunter and guardians of jungles and earth so these Sunuwar people mostly offer sacrifice for their deity. They are Bali Pujak.
Folsyandar or Chandi Puja
The Sunuwar Kirat follow Kirat Mundhum or Mukdum. Their holy book is the Mundhum also known as the Kirat Veda. Kirant Mundhum is normally orally practice because this is consider very holy like secret Mantras. Mundhum mention how the universe and creatures created by god. Kirat Sunuwar people worship nature and ancestors, animism and shamanism, believing in a their primeval ancestors, Chandi Devi. Some other names for festival Folsyandar by other kiranti clan like Rai, Limbu, and Yakkha which they say Sakela, Sakle, Toshi, Sakewa, Saleladi Bhunmidev, Chyabrung, Yokwa. Folsyandar is greatest Sunuwar kiranti religion and they celebrate with great enthusiast gathering all together. They worship since morning, clean the houses, prepare many different kind of delicious Sunuwari food and delight like Chamre, Ayeri, Kudha, Lopsyo Simi, Gormali, Auphu Babar, Auphu walsyo, Fulaura, Syoble, Jilil Chirs Syoble, Walsyo Rebe, Sor Wank, Jirma Syam, etc. They have two main festivals: Folsyandar Uvauli, during plantation season; and Folsyandar Udhauli, in the time of the harvest. In another word this festival celebrate in time of Ubhauli during Baisakh (April/May), as it is the start of farming and cultivation time. It is celebrated for 15 days which starts from Baisakh Purnima and Folsyandar Udhauli celebrate during the Mangshir (Nov/Dec) as thanks giving to nature for providing them with good crops, as it is the time for harvesting. Therefore, the festival is also known as "Bhumi Puja". They copy and try to perform graceful dance of all animal of earth even the trees and wind how it flow but many of these are disappeared. The very famous Chandi dances are, (1) Kasya Sil (porcupine dance), (2) Ramb Dwacha Sil (Buffalo dance),(3) Dhobni Chib Sil (Dhobini Chari dance), (4) Killo Sil (Chanchar chara dance),(5) Mundhum Salak Sil,(6) Wan Sil (Bhalu dance),(7) Naso Khi Gatik Sil,(8) Lan Gacha Sil, (9) Deswali Sil, (10) Myasyo Sil,(11) Jasi Dhukum Sil,(12) Aum Dhobni Sil,(13) Suro Gaso Chacha Sil, etc
During the Chandi dance Dholes dance with being circle, in centre of pole there is Sundhukur(golden dove) tied up it's legs with the upside down. It's neck would be cut and turn off the skin and bring down to the bottom of neck without killing. According to Mundhum they are punishing it because it was gift given by Chandi Devi for her devotee Kirat but it disappear later when kirata brother quarrel themselves who to take in time of migration in different way. Till this Sun Dhukur remain the Kirata never gonna be poor when he disappear kirata start to loose everything their kingdom, weath, respect, glory, etc. so they are punishing him symbolising Sun Dhukur. When they dance use to beat Dhol in sixteen different way in different time and there is too many different type of Dhol as well like; (1) Syari dhol, (2) Foka dhol, (3) Wash dhol, (4) Pothi dhol, (5) Bhale dhol, (6) Naso dhol, (7) Shiri dhol, (8) Giri dhol, (9) Syanma dhol, (10) Basyeri dhol, (11) Khayer dhol, (12) Suri dhol, (13) Maulo dhol and many more. This Sunuwar kiranti are not only brave, rich in culture and tradition they are also world famous for welcoming the guest. If anyone stranger is going to see Chandi and he is taking part every Sunuwar person they ready to invite them as guest to join in their feast and drink. Actually it sounds folk tale but this is real exist. Every customer is surprised with their kindness and genereoucity. They view customer as divine presence.
Surom Puja
Surom is goddess of crops, paddy and all foods she is like Laxmi. They are sixteen sister Surom goddess who are protecting all crops. If they are happy you can harvest much crops and your treasure of food always full. If Surom is not happy then you will be poor there is no money and food in your house. They are also guardians of your crops and treasury of food. They detect the thief and punish them. Their names are as follows; (1) Khome Surom, (2) Dewa Surom, (3) Egi Surom, (4) Kelo Surom, (5) Melo Surom, (6) Nadi Surom, (7) Padi Surom, (8) Likhacho Surom, (9) Kuli Surom, (10) Muli Surom, (11) Thangra Surom, (12) Daini Surom, (13) Dabla Surom, (14) Duma Surom, (15) Badem Surom, (16) Kothe Surom
Nimlo Puja
Nimlo is god of fruits. If you worship Nimlo your fruits farming will grow and you can be benefited harvesting plenty of fruits. They are also sixteen brothers who guard the fruits tree.
Gil Puja
This is very ancient and expensive religion so this one is dead or disappeared. This is like Koti Hom Puja you have to sacrifice 360 animals of earth and all type of grains and essence. This one is not only expensive but also horrified because of flow of blood of animals. In past it used to long last more then 6 months. You can't do by yourself has to be done by community. This ancient religion of kirata was stolen by Aryan and put in their Vedic Hindu fold so they start to say Koti Hom actually Koti Hom or Bali Puja Bidhi was kiranti Bidhi(way).
Sed Puja
Sed is Naga or serpent king which they guard the Sunuwar kiranti house sitting by the door. This Sed is white colour of gigantic snake who lived by the door with coiling, Mundhum Pujari(Naso), Paibo, Gyaymi, Baidang, Lama and Aghori Baba can easily see when they come in house. He is guardian of house and temple and he save from the drought happening in country.
Fush Puja
This is god of fire you have to respect in kitchen when you cook, shoudn't have to do dirty, piss and spit on fire. If you worship Fush god then your home and family would be always safe and happy there is no fire caught otherwise he will bring pain on your eye, body and domestic animals. Ancient time kirata worship Fush(Agni) before they make their bow and arrow by the help of Fush Dev it will be mighty, accurate and you will win the battle. Ancient Sunuwar kirant when they make bow and arrow they treat this as special ceremony and worship many kiranti god. They used to make from too many different type of Bamboo for different part like Taru Bans, Gopa Bans, etc. They used to apply different type of bone, horn and glue to support bow so it won't be loose and break in the time of using. Kiranti were Guru of bamboo they used to make everything from this like eating bowl, drinking bowl, etc. Bamboo is called oriental dream. Bamboo and oriental people are inseparable like Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese and Korean they have question what the bamboo can't do? Instead of question what can you do by bamboo. It can clearly proved kiranti and oriental people were same in past.
Chegu Puja
Chegu puja is one of the most important worship which is done during November and December invoking Yabre Gubre (dead ancienster) and other deity. This puja is done for peace of their ancestors spirit who are sheltering in temple, monasteries, someone's houses without going proper destination haven and asking for blessing of good life. They prepared Tormas rice cones and lots of newly prepared wine from rice, millet, barley, wheet and corn. Sunuwar Nakso, Poibo and Gyaymi took part in ceremony. The ceremony begins with burning essence and the word Pwank-Pwank-Pwank created by joining two leaps and start to say Sang-Sang-Sang-Sangso Chuplo Hopo, Duplo Hopo, and so on. Apart from that Sunuwar worship many other festival and deity like; Sagun puja, Kansh puja, Chegu Puja, Fush Puja, Waash Lacha, Phache Gyaimi, Dash Gyaimi, Aita Bare Dhamini Dhami, Nak Debi Puja, Ghari Bhume Puja, Toshi Puja, Sime Bhume Puja, Naugi Puja, Meselmi Puja, Ragin Gyami Puja, Basu Puja, Gijo Pija, Phol Puja, Sida Puja, Kati Gyami Puja, Podesh Puja, Wash Thelu Puja, Kalpip Puja, Ras Nash Puja, Yabre Puja, Basu Puja, etc. When they kill the pig specially in Dashai festival. They must call for Nakso Sunuwar kiranti priest who process all ceremony you can't just kill by yourself. First Nakso spray rice saying some sacred Mantras because according to myth in very beginning of earth no body human being could kill the wild boar so one kirata hunter worship mother goddess of earth and he release arrow fortunately wild board fall down and died so since then they worship their ancestor in special ceremony when they want to kill pig. Then Nakso kill pig with long Nakso knife other people have no allowed to touch that knife. When they kill pig then they separate all of their different organs like Ghati ko Mala (neck part of meat) cut around whole in two pieces same thing tail part in three strip because there is all different type of Yabres (ancestor) who eat different part of organs like some eat eye, some eat tail and many different parts have their own owner. They cooked all of these including liver, heart, langue and blood in huge bowl is called Karahi. They prepare very nice Tin pane Raksi(wine) as well. Nakso ready for worship he lay 360 Sapsi Safa(a kind of holy leaf) and he put all those meat on it. Cooked whole head and big bowl of just prepared hot wine sit on middle of Safa then Nakso start ceremony saying sacred word Sang Sang Sang Sangso. This is quite similar with Chinese tradition when they worship their ancestor they as well offer whole cooked pig meat on them. Nakso is not normal priest like Aryan priest he is full of spiritual power like when the Nakso and Gyaymi, Poibo have sometime spiritual battle then always Nakso win if Poibo or Gyaymi is not Janda(very powerful). When they do spiritual battle Nakso start to lay Sapsi Safa(sacred leaf use by Nakso) and take him/her in unknown destination he/she only can see Sapsi Safa and walk on it but underneath there is Rakta Kunda(lake of blood) so Poibo and Gyaymi couldn't come out without the help of other Nakso. He can take their soul in Suri Dhoka(unknown dark room) and make captive. Same thing he launch too many Ban(arrow) one of those is Duma Ban arrow from porcupine's throne it comes with spinning, deadly and such swift it goes through the heart of Poibo or Gyaymi so they will die on spot where they are dancing or walking. If the Poibo or Gyaymi is powerful then still they have to show another Taro(target) to divert it like either someone other or their own children, family or relatives so to Tussle with the Nakso is very risky and dangerous for them. Technically they are enemy to each other for their spiritual power. There is too many different kind of Nakso like Mundhum Nakso, Suri Nakso, Auphu Nakso, Phoka Nakso, etc. Sunuwar kirant people lived in wallo kirant specially in Bank of Sunkosi, Khimti, Likhu, Yolung, Malung and Solung and almost all eastern nepal scattering in little number apart from there they also live in many different part of India like Sikkim, Darjeeling, Nagaland, Deharadun and Silang and also they live in Burma, Fiji and Hong Kong and United kingdom recently. Also they live in western Nepal in very little number in Makwanpur area like Tistung, Chitlang, Khaplung, Vimphedi, Nibuwatar, Dhingan, Phaparbari, Dhiyal, Chatiban and Hetauda. According to history First of all the name of Surmadan Sunuwar Jijicha from Rasnalu went there to settle down around 150 years ago.
Their clans names
(1) Mulicha, (2) kormocha, (3) Sokucha, (4) Rapacha, (5) Laspacha, (6) kamacha, (7) yata, (8) Bujicha, (9) Rupacha, (10) Durbicha, (11) Jijicha, (12) Deppacha, (13) phaticha, (14) syusyucha, (15) syochul, (16) Katicha, (17) Nomlicha, (18) Linocha, (19) kyuiticha, (20) Digarcha, (21)Kyompaticha, (22) Wangde, (23) Bigyacha, (24) Thangracha, (25) Dashucha, (26) Gongrocha, (27) Bramlicha, (28) Lokucha, (29) Jespucha, (30) Rawacha, (31) Jyaticha, (32) Blache, (33) Binicha, (34) Yelungcha, and other many more. Sunuwar kiranti they buried their death body as tradition but nowadays they cremated their body as well because they came in influence of Hindu culture which they got Bahun Bachi from king Girvan Yuddha on the Nepalese year 1882 BS, Magh 3 Gate. They are also called Jimi and Mukhiya as well.
Their occupation.
In one word kiranti Sunuwar's occupation, features, tradition can be describe saying like;
Job - Warrior
Family - Tiger
Color - Golden yellow
Sacres weapon - Bow and arrow, arrow, Khukuri, Trisul(which they used as spear this one is more convenient then spear because it can lock the opponents weapon during battle. This is not only offensive but defensive as well hence kiranteswore Mahadeva seems carrying giant Trisul.) Sacred flower - Totola
Sacred colour - White
As being warrior race they go to join in British Gurkha Army, Indian Gurkha Army primarily if they fail then at least try to join in Nepalese Army but nowadays there is window of opportunity for employment in foreign country so they try to go to Japan, Korea, European country and other developed country for earning. Of course they do farming as well, as being Jimi land lord. Kiranti people were certainly oldest people in earth so there is no doubt first they were the owner of land and earth. They used to hunt and gather food since beginning of earth. They have great respect on nature and they treat accordingly. Aryan people trapped them in their conspiracy so nowadays they are being kick out from their own mother land. They are using too many dirty policy to capture indigenous tribal land. Chetri and Bramhin came as refugee in Nepal so start to settle wherever they get land from Tarai to Himal. They are getting majority in their number but we are in minority this tradition is still keep going on. Specially, they are holding governmental position since 200 years when Shah dynasty came in power. They are the authority of Nepal and their foreign policy is not balance. Northern boarder with China they restrict when there is only four Naka(transit) very small in number because they are mongoloid origin but contrary in southern boarder with India they open no need visa all land is flat everywhere is open boarder no wired fences still more then 16 Nakas(transit) where the official work happen in boarder so millions of Aryan migration is happening everyday and we mongoloid kiranti are being minority and endanger of disappear. We can't relax and enjoy such vast open boarder because Nepal is too small and India is too big they can swallow our identity. Nepal kirant Deshe was so beautiful and people were so nice and simple like natural water such clean and peace so many Aryan people from India came for to seek peace that's why it is called in Sanskrit the land of solitary meditation and penance(Tapovan), Land of Truth(Satyawati), the ladder of salvation(Muktisopan) by this Aryan people. They pretended they came for meditate in search of freedom we gave them shelter but later killed their own owner. Kiranti mongoloid people their number is always decreasing due to many reason. They were died more than 30 Thousands only in first and second world wars. How many they died in Indian wars, war with Rana regime and too many other wars which was putting trap by this Hindu government in purpose of how to decrease their number in past. If there is demon and human lived together what do you think human will survive no doubt answer is clear the word 'NO'. How long we indigenous people of Nepal gonna be in deep sleep like Kumbha Karna. We must fight for our right and motherland otherwise our future descendant will curse us.
Dhobighat, Lalitpur, Kathmandu