Oct 3, 2009


Lok Bahadur limbu
1.1 General Background
A language is a system of visual, auditory or tactile symbols of communication and the rules used to manipulate them. It can also refer to the use of such system as a general phenomenon. It is considered to be an exclusively human mode of communication.
Human languages are usually referred to as natural language. A common progression for natural languages is that they are first spoken, then written, and then an understanding and explanation of their grammar is attempted. Different languages are spoken in the world. Some languages have both written and spoken form but some languages have only spoken form. In different languages, the English language is the international language, similarly, the Nepali language, national language for Nepal, is spoken by the most of the people in Nepal. In Nepal, more than 92 languages are spoken among them the Limbu language is a one which is spoken in Limbu community especially in the eastern region of Nepal.
According to Subba and Baral (2008, p.26), the word ‘Limbu’ was derived from ‘Yakthughang’ and ‘Lilimhang’. The Limbu people themselves believed offspring of ‘Yakthunghang Lilimhang’. They were called ‘Yakthungba’ and their state- ‘Yakthungba lage’ until 6th century. Campbell (1840, p. 595) writes:
The Limbus considers themselves to be the original inhabitants of the country. They now occupy, at least they are satisfied that none of the neighboring tribes have any claims of pre-occupation but they are not agreed themselves, on the point of nativity. (as cited in Driem, 1987, p. xix )
In the Limbu history, the origin of Limbu is found rarely but it is found that most of the writers have explained ‘Limbuwan’. According to Chemjong (2003) Limbuwan was established due to the quarrel between Limbus after the death of Isha Mashih. Similarly, Chemjong (2003) further defines the term ‘Limbuwan’ was derived from ‘Li’, ‘Aabu’ and ‘wan’. Here ‘Li’ , ‘Aabu’ and ‘wan’ means ‘bow’, ‘to shut’ and ‘to name’ respectively. In this way, it is the state in which rule over using ‘Dhanu Ban’ i.e. called Limbuwan. (as cited in Subba and Baral, 2008, p.1)
Limbu, one of the ethnic groups, is found in the eastern part of Nepal i.e. in Taplejung, Pachthar, Tehrathum, Dhankuta, Ilam, Sankhuwasabha district in the areas of 16,358 sq kilometers. Among the different castes of Nepal, the Limbu is a cast which has its own culture, language, literature, custom, festival and religion. Limbu people have their own unique culture, which is different from other cultures in Nepal. They have their own custom, tradition and festivals. Sappok Chomen, (Ceremonies preceding the birth), Yangdang Phongma (Naming a child), Mangenna (Wording off evil influences), Nahangma (Anoining the family head), Tongsing (A link with the ancestors and the present) etc. are the customs and religion of Limbus (as cited in Subba, 1998, pp.41-47). Similarly, Limbus have their own festivals. They celebrate different festivals in different occasions. According to Lawati (2006, p.5) Yakwa Tangnam, Shisekpa Tangnam, Balihang Tangnam, Chasok Tangnam, Kakfekwa Tangnam are the festivals of Limbus.
In case of literature, Limbus have their own literature in their language. Different literary texts have been published in the Limbu language. Subba (2002, pp.32-36) says that ‘Kirati Dantya Katha’ by Chemjong(1965), ‘Kirati Lok Kathaharu’ by Shrestha (1991), Nisamman Sewa Samlo’ by Tholong and Chemjong (1930) ,‘Anga Syang Recho’ by Lingden (1982) and ‘Thothama’ by Muringla are the Limbu literature. Through the literary perspective, Limbu literature is rich.
A Thesis the Master's Degree in English Education

1 comment:

bishnu kumar said...

Thank u very much 4 a very useful,essential,valuable,beneficiale,comprehensesible, and giving emphasis on preserving our culturally-rich language.