Dec 5, 2008

Limbuwan Gorkha War

The Limbuwan Gorkha war was a series of battles fought between the King of Gorkhas and the rulers of various principalities of Limbuwan from 1771 to 1774 AD. The war came to an end in 1774 with the Limbuwan Gorkha treaty which recognised Limbu peoples' right to Kipat land in Limbuwan and full autonomy. History of Limbuwan covers the rest of the Limbuwan History.
After the conquest of Majh Kirant (Kirant Rai kingdoms) by the Gorkhas, they invaded Limbuwan on two fronts. One front was in Chainpur (present day Sankhuwasabha District) and the second front was in Bijaypur (present day Dharan, Sunsari District). Bijaypur was the capital of the Morang Kingdom of Limbuwan.
Gorkha-Limbuwan War 1771-1774 AD
Battles of Chainpur
First battle
In 1771 AD, the Gorkhas, with the view of attacking the land of the Limbus, crossed the Arun River. When the Limbu kings learned this, they brought their forces and fought a decisive battle on the banks of the Arun and Sowa rivers (in present day Sankhuwasabha district). The generals of the Limbu army were General Sanbotrey, General Tesakpa, General Kangkarey and Commander General Kangso. They made their fortifications on the banks of the Sowa River and fought bravely against the invading Gorkhas. During the first battle, eight to nine Gorkha soldiers fell at each volley of the Limbu archers. The Limbu army drove their enemies back from their land and, despite the Gorkha king sending frequent reinforcements, the Limbu army kept fighting for three years. The Limbu army drove their enemy back to a distance of about nine days and killed many Gorkha soldiers by guerrilla warfare in the eastern hills. During this first battle of Chainpur, the area between Chainpur and Dumja was the battle field.
Second battle
In 1774 AD, Gorkha forces again came to the banks of the Arun River to fight with the Limbu forces. Raghu Rana, the commander of the Gorkha force, asked the Limbu commander to fix a day for a combat between the commanders only. He proposed that the rest of the soldiers should leave their weapons at their base and attend the duel of their two commanders as spectators only. They agreed that the winner would win the battle and control of the armies.
General Kangso, the Limbu forces’ commander was inspired by the Kirant Limbu God of War, Nehangma. He came out yelling “I will cut him into pieces immediately”, then drew his sword and put a red colour on it, picked up his shield and went to the fighting place prepared for combat. But Raghu Rana, the Gorkha force's commander had ordered his soldiers to hide weapons and ammunition on the side of the road where the battle was to be held.
On the morning of 25th day of the month of Baisakh of Bikram Sambat 1831, corresponding to first week of May of 1774 AD on the Gregorian calendar, all the soldiers of both sides stood on the upper and lower sides of the fighting ground situated on the southern side of the Chainpur town. The combat between the Limbu General Kangso and Gorkhali General Raghu Rana started. The soldiers stood watching, while the Generals fought till afternoon. In the afternoon, Kangso finally smote Raghu Rana in such a way that he died. Watching the defeat of their General, Gorkhali force immediately picked up the weapons they had hidden and suddenly attacked the Limbu General Kangso and soldiers. Kangso died in the battlefield and Limbu armies fought the Gorkhali army on the way to Tambar River and closing their way towards the river killed them all together. The Limbu forces then buried the bodies of Raghurana and Kangso on the upper and lower sides of the fighting ground and erected stone monuments over their graves.
Third battle
After the annihilation of the Gorkhali Army during the second battle of Limbuwan in Chainpur, King Prithivi Narayan Shah sent an army under the command of General Ram Bhadra Thapa Magar. This time the Limbu officers were General Manjit Rey, General Motreye and General Birjit Rey. When the Limbu forces heard about the arrival of the Gorkha forces at Chainpur, they made traps by digging trenches along the path leading to town of Chainpur and set up ambushes along the traps. The Gorkhali forces made their way to Chainpur again and were killed in an ambush and guerrilla warfare. Then the news of the battle of Chainpur reached the Sikkim Palace. The Sikkimese King Tenzin Namgyal, having alliances with the Limbu Kings, declared war against the Gorkhas. By this time the Gorkhas declared ceasefire with the Limbus and the battle of Chainpur came to an end. In the mean time Gorkhali representatives were negotiating peace terms with the Limbu Ministers in Bijaypur, capital of Morang kingdom of Limbuwan.
Battle of Bijaypur
Bijaypur (lies near present day Dharan, Sunsari) was the capital town of Lowland Limbuwan Kingdom of Morang. It was ruled by King Buddhi karma Khebang. King Buddhikarna Khebang was the descendent of the ruler King Muray Hang Khebang of Phedap Kingdom and King Muray hang’s descendents were made the hereditary prime ministers of Morang Kingdom starting 1584 AD. Bijaypur was a very renowned town and thus it was not easy to conquer for Gorkhali king, so he sought help from the British. But King BudhiKarna Khebang of Morang was already in close contact with the British, Sikkim, Bhutan and Tibet. When King Buddhi karna came to know that the neighbouring kingdom of King Karna Sen was annexed to the Gorkhas, he was determined to bring help from the British. King Karna Sen, his family and minister Agam singh Rai fled and came to take refuge at Bijaypur Palace. Then Raja Budhi Karna gave charge of his state affairs to his Chief Minister ShriShun Raya Chemjong and went to Calcutta to ask for military help. In 1773 AD, The governor general Warren Hastings was in Murshidabad at the time, so Buddhi Karna went and sought help. It was agreed that British soldiers would help protect Morang kingdom from the invading Gorkhas. King Budhikarna with this assurance wrote letter to King Prithivi Narayan not to invade Morong because he had British help on his side. But soon Raja Budhi Karna realised that Gorkhali King had written letter to the British against him and realised he would not get any help. Then he went to Tibet to ask for help from the Chinese Emperor.
During King Budhi Karna Khebang’s absence in Bijaypur, the Gorkha raja sent army to Bijaypur town to capture it. The Chief Minister Shrishun Chemjong, and ministers of the time Shrikum Phung, and Srijung peacefully surrendered themselves to the Gorkha raja on the condition that they would be given full autonomy in Limbuwan.
Thus in the August of 1774 AD, the Gorkha King Prithivi Narayan Shah’s representatives Abhiman singh Basnet, Parath Bhandari, Kirti Singh Khawas and Bali Baniya met the ministers of Morang state and agreed to come to good terms with Gorkha Kingdom and accept Gorkhali raja as maharaja and that in return Kingdom of Gorkha would retain the right of self government of Limbu rulers in their kingdoms.
Gorkha-Limbuwan Treaty of 1774 AD.
The Gorkha Bhardars, Abhiman Singh Basnet, Parath Bhandari, Kirti Singh Khawas and Bali Bania on Behalf of Gorkha raja Prithivi Narayan Shah agreed to take an oath and swear on “Noon pani” (salt-water) promising that Gorkha raja would never confiscate Limbus’ Kipat land( self autonomous land) nor destroy them. If confiscated their Kipat land and destroyed them, then the god, upon whom Gorkha Raja had swore upon and put faith on, would destroy him, his descendents and his Kingdom. With this swearing ceremony, a big copper cauldron was brought in front of Gorkha and Limbu representatives and one pathi (eight pounds) of salt was put into it. Limbu ministers then poured water into it and stirred properly to mix the salt with water. Then the ministers asked the Gorkha bhardars to extract salt out of the water. They answered that salt had mixed and had become impossible to extract out from the water.
The Limbu ministers then said,” Although the salt had melted and it is impossible to extract it from water, yet the water has become tasteful. You, the Gorkhas, are like water and we the Kirant Limbu people, are like salt. You Gorkhas people want us to melt in you, but you will not remain as before. When we mix or amalgamate with you, then you Gorkhas will be more exalted than before. But, if you betray us by taking our right of Kipat land, then what oath will you take for not violating this agreement?” The Gorkha bhardars, on behalf of Gorkha raja took a handful of salt water in their hands and swore that the Gorkha raja would never betray them by forfeiting the Kipat land (self governing autonomous land). If the Gorkha King did so, his descendents would melt like salt and disappear from the world. The Gorkha Bhardars, then questioned the Kirant Limbu ministers, saying if they will betray the Gorkha raja by violating “Noon pani’ agreement what oath would they take for never violating such agreement. The Kirant Limbu ministers took a handful of salt water and swore that they would never go against the Gorkhali King. If they did so then their descendents would also melt like salt and disappear from the world.
After making such agreement on salt-water (sacred and important elements) the Gorkha bhardars on behalf of Gorkha raja, gave the following Treaty paper or Lal Mohor to the Limbu ministers of Bijaypur.
Translation of the agreement between the Limbu ministers of Morang kingdom and King Prithivi Narayan Shah of Gorkha Kingdom in 1774 AD.

“ Let this be our agreement that I want to have you as the members of my own family. My religious mind is good. You are under my protection from now. By my power, your country is now mine but you are still ours. I will take the responsibility of progress and protection of your families. I will retain your rights to anything you possess. You keep in contact with my officers, help them and enjoy your land with full right as long as it exists. You are different from Nau lakh Rai, because their kings will be displaced. You who call yourselves Kings are not destroyable. I know your policy and good intentions."

“ The Kingdom of Sikkim had not come to terms with us. My officers have come to your land with full instructions. You will come to now everything through them. You agree with them and enjoy your land individually in a manner as mentioned above. I, hereby, agree to abide by the above mentioned terms of agreement of never taking your land by force and destroying you. I swear on the copper plate and say that if I violate the above mentioned promises, then let the God upon whom I and my family depend and worship, destroy my descendents and my kingdom. I have written the above mentioned agreement and hereby hand it over to the above mentioned Limbu brothers on this day of twenty second shrawan of Sambat eighteen hundred and thirty one at our capital city of Kantipur may it be blessed and fortunate. ”
When the Allies of Morong Kingdom heard the news of agreement between Gorkha and Morong Kingdoms, the Limbu rulers of Mewa Kingdom, Phedap Kingdom, Maiwa Kingdom and Tambar Kingdom also came to Bijaypur to join the alliance with the Gorkha King under same terms and conditions of the treaty. Rulers of the above regions, Papo Hang, Thegim Hang, and Nembang Hang under the leadership of Chemjong Hang (ShriShun rai) decided to join the Gorkha King on the same condition.
Thus the Limbuwan-Gorkha war came to an end in 1774 AD with all the principalities of Limbuwan joining Gorkha Kingdom except the King of Yangwarok ( Kingdom of Yangwarok consists of present day parts of Taplejung, Panchthar ) and ruler of Ilam ( Present day Ilam district ) King Hangsu Phuba of Lingdom Family.
In 1775 AD, King Yong Ya Hang of Yangwarok was not satisfied with the condition of self government proposed by the Gorkha King and instead went to Sikkim palace and incited the King of Sikkim to declare war against the Gorkhas. He raised his Limbu army and joined it with the Sikkimese army. Bhutia Sikkimese Army General Tipu Taka attacked Chainpur and drove back a small Gorkha force from the Siddhipur Fort. Then reinforcement of the Gorkha force arrived with full war equipment and drove them back to Tambar River where decisive battle was fought. Then the Sikkimese army went back to their country and Gorkhas again persuaded them as far as Ilam. The Limbu King of Ilam Hangsu Phuba therefore surrendered to the Gorkha King conditionally. The Gorkha King later gave him full autonomy and Kipat in his region with the Lal Mohor on 1869 BS, 1813 AD.
Although Bhutia Sikkimese army was pushed back to Sikkim, The Limbu forces of King Yong Ya Hang and Sikkimese Lepcha army attacked Morong under General Chyok Thupp and Defeated Gorkhas in seventeen battlefields. So Sikkimese Lepcha general Chyok Thup Barphongpa was called “Satrajit” by Gorkhas and “Athing by Lepchas. Then this time Bhutia Battalion under General Tipu Taka came back again and joined Lepcha and Limbu forces of Lepcha General Chhyok Thuypp and Limbu General Sunuhang. The Gorkha King sent a huge reinforcement to drive the Sikkimese army from Morong, but in a big battle near the Rangeli town Gorkhas were very badly defeated and therefore Gorkha officers sued for peace. Treaty was concluded in Bijaypur.
Gorkha-Sikkim War in Limbuwan 1775 AD.
In 1775 AD, the treaty was signed between Gorkha and Sikkim, but the same year King Pratap Singh Shah son of Prithivi Narayan shah invaded Sikkim through Tapling Jong and Ilam. Under leadership of Purna Aley Magar they took western Sikkim. Then Sikkimese forces retaliated and pushed Gorkha forces back. After this invasion Sikkimese Generals Depchaang Rinzing and Chhangzat Chyok Thup determined to drive away Gorkhas from Sikkim and even from Limbuwan. They pushed Gorkha soldiers back to Arun River and Chainpur.
Internal conflict among the Limbus
Limbu rulers who had joined the Gorkhas following Gorkha-Limbuwan treaty of 1774 were fighting with Gorkhas and when they saw the Limbus fighting from Sikkimese side, they challenged them. A big battle took place among Limbus themselves at the Nigrum battle field. After the Gorkha Limbus were reinforced by other Magar Gorkha soldiers, the Limbus siding with Sikkim were defeated and they fled away.
Beside Chainpur, pockets of Gorkha soldiers were fighting in Yangwarok of Limbuwan. Sikkimese won the battle of Yangwarok and Gorkha soldiers were slain or taken prisoners in Yangwarok Fort.
Beside Chainpur and Yangwarok, a big battle took place at Phu of Morang and there under general Chhyok Thup defeated the Gorkhas.
Meanwhile, General Depchhang Rinzin commanded Bhutia soldiers and crossed Arun River and attacked Dingla Fort and Phai fort (Present day Bhojpur district) and occupied them.
Finally Gorkha King again sent a huge battalion of reinforcement and attacked Sikkimese army at Dingla and Phali forts chased them back to Sidhipur fort in Chainpur. In the battle of Chainpur, famous Sikkimese General Depchhang Rinzing was hit by a bullet and died. With their general dead, Sikkimese force fled from the battle and withdrew to Sikkim. Thus from 1776 AD Sikkim-Gorkha war in Limbuwan region ended.
This also brought the last of the Limbu principality Yangwarok Kingdom of Limbuwan into the Gorkha Kingdom. The annexation of all the Limbu Kingdoms of Limbuwan was completed through treaty in 1774 AD and by war in 1776 AD.
Mass migration of the Limbus
Following the end of Sikkim-Gorkha war at Limbuwan, the Gorkha officers started searching put people who had really sided with the Sikkimese party and started giving them death penalties. Seeing this, all the Limbus who had fought against the Gorkhas by siding with the Sikkimese King, assembled at the place called Ambe Pojoma and decided to leave Limbuwan forever. They were altogether 32000 in number and migrated in three groups. First group went to Sikkim and settles in Rung, Rhino and Magnesia villages, second group migrated to Bhutan and settled in Kuching, Tendu and Jumsa villages and third group migrated to Assam and settles in Beni, Kalchini and other Meche and Koch villages.
Iman Singh Chemjong. History and Culture of Kirant People.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1 comment:

  1. Dear Editor,
    I viewed Limbuwan Gorkha war which is published in this site, and became so happy to that historical document. There covered many events those were happened during limbuwan gorkha bettles. But little bit events and courase king of yangwarak thum who was known as king Hilihang is missed on this discription. If there is possible please include that history any way. About Hilihang you can get more information in the book "limbuwan kranti ra bikash" which is writen by Mr. Dilendra Kurumbang, Panthar.

    I think, to accomodate all limbuwan people for the struggle, we need to know historical background. Because these things can make people confidence to their political agenda. Also it is a important political mathology of limbu indigenous peoples. So we have to spread it all over the world. Thank you.